Positive Progress Through The Benevolent Use Of Knowledge

Friday, January 30, 2009

History of Algebra*

The history of Algebra begins in Egypt, Babylon, and India. Although it was in these areas that the roots of Algebra began, the message and teachings of it would eventually spread throughout the world. The Arabs first practiced this mathematical form, and they are given credit for spreading the teachings of Algebra to the world. It was they who brought Algebra from Egypt, Babylon, and India, and spread it to Europe and, eventually, the world.

The history of algebra itself is broken into several sub-categories, and has been expanded upon by several hundred of the world greatest mathematicians. Some of the sub-categories include the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, abstract linear spaces, as well as quadratic, cubic and quartic equations.

Not only can Algebra be divided into sub-categories as subjects, but the groups that studied, or developed them can also categorize them. Egyptian Algebra, Babylonian Algebra, Greek Geometric Algebra, Diophantine Algebra, Hindu Algebra, Arabic Algebra, European Algebra since 1500, and modern Algebra are the most popular categories. All the different theories within Algebra each have been worked millions of times, checked and rechecked for their validity

Wednesday, January 28, 2009

Blackness Laid The Foundation of Modern Theology*

Christ's African roots

April 22, 2000
By Selwin R Cudjoe

Today Christians all over the world celebrate the resurrection of Christ: the symbolic triumph of life over death. According to Christians, Christ was crucified on Good Friday, rose from the dead on Easter Sunday and ascended into heaven subsequently.

Thus, the certitude that those who believe in Him will also have everlasting life in the company of God and His panoply of angels.Few Christians know that this exciting story is taken from the Egyptian (read African) religion, the base upon which Judeo-Christianity and Islam is built.

In fact, Christianity and Islam are nothing more than African religions adapted to fill the needs of a specific time and place.Their theology represents the development of African theology. Ideas such as the one, eternal God; the creation of the world; the future life; and three persons in one God are taken directly from the Egyptian religion.

The very cross, symbol of eternal life to which Christians cling, is taken from Egyptian religion. Otto Meinardus notes that "the ankh, originally the pharaonic symbol of life, was not employed in a specifically Christian context, that is, representing salvation through the vicarious death of Christ, before the fifth or sixth century, or one or two centuries after the Christianisation of the Nile Valley."

(Two Thousand years of Coptic Religion.)Three thousand years before Christianity, the Egyptians proclaimed the doctrine of eternal life and the resurrection of a spiritual body. The prayers, hymns and short litanies inscribed upon the walls of the tombs of the Egyptian kings referred to the presence of life after death.

In his introduction to the Egyptian Book of the Dead (1500 BC), Wallis Budge notes that "The chief features of the Egyptian religion remained unchanged from the Vth and VI dynasties down to the period when the Egyptians embraced Christianity, after the preaching of St Mark, the Apostle in Alexandria, AD 69, so firmly had the early beliefs taken possession of the Egyptian mind.

"The resurrection story is based upon the ancient story of the resurrection of Osiris. Like Christ, he was the victim of a cruel death and a horrible mutilation before he ascended into heaven.

The Egyptians believed his brother Set, who dismembered his body to deny him a second life, killed Osiris. Through her magical powers, Isis, his wife, collected the various parts of his body.

Three days later, she restored him to life in the underworld where he became judge of the dead, exercising functions similar to those attributed to God. Osiris was killed on a Friday and restored on a Sunday.

Plutarch rendered one version of the Osiris story. To him, "Osiris was the god through whose sufferings and death the Egyptian hoped that his body might rise again in some transformed or glorified shape. To him who had conquered death and had become the king of the other world, the Egyptian appealed in prayer for eternal life though his victory and power" (Egyptian Book of the Dead).

Every funeral inscription written between 31 BC in Egypt right down to the prayers on the coffins of the Roman period noted that "what is done for Osiris is done also for the deceased.

The state and condition of Osiris are the state and condition of the deceased." Just as Christians identified with Christ and his resurrection, followers of Egypt's monotheistic religion identified with the life and resurrection of Osiris.

The Egyptians also celebrated Easter. In the month of Choiak, ceremonies connected with Osiris's sufferings, death and resurrection were very popular. Religious observances took place in the temples and in the country while ceremonies connected with the burial of the dead, the use of amulets, and certain aspects of funeral rituals also took place.

On this Easter Sunday, it is an African religion that offers us the possibility of redemption. When Paul introduced the concept of a Redeemer born into a wicked world "who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this evil world" (Galatians: 3-4), he elaborated a theology of the Cross.

He was not speaking of the Roman cross of punishment but the Egyptian ankh (cross), a symbol of Christ's victory over death that early Christians adopted during the first three centuries of their existence.

In the 5th century AD the Roman-Latin cross became the Christian symbol.Until then, the Egyptian ankh represented the living Christ: "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live: yet not I but the Christ within me.

"The latter was a Gnostic concept. Christianity's triumph over Egyptian monotheism occurred because it represented a more democratic tendency and was suited better to the aspirations of the everyday person.

Whereas Egyptian monotheism was designed so that only kings and rich persons could gain everlasting life, they alone could afford the expensive burial cost that assured the afterlife, Christianity offered the promise of eternal life to everyone.

One only had to be baptized and believe in a risen Christ. As Christianity began to spread, Jesus and Osiris were presented as saviours to whom men and women could turn to be assured of immortality.

Although the Gnostics, one of the early branches of the Christian church, regarded the resurrection as a spiritual rather than a physical event, the physicality of Christ's death and resurrection captured the imagination of the common person.

By the second century AD, orthodoxy and rigidity began to shape the early Christian Church. Irenaeus, a Christian writer of the second century, argued that there could only be one Church that must be orthodox (right-thinking), catholic (universal) and apostolic (Petrine). Outside that Church "there is no salvation.

"By 325 AD, the Council of Nicea asserted Christ's "divinity" and assured its members that He was "begotten of the Father;" the "true God of true God. "After Nicea, the Egyptian influence on the Christian Church diminished. By 2000 AD few of us are aware of the African contribution to this important salvific event.

As we enter a new millennium, it must be remembered that blackness laid the foundation of modern theology, which offers salvation to so many people.

Monday, January 26, 2009

High Priest of Amun Ra*

Kings and Queens
4th dynastySeneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.5th dynastyUserkaf, Sahure, Neferirkare, Niuserre, Djedkare Isesi, Unas, etc6th dynastyTeti, Userkare, Pepi I, Nemtyemsaf I, Pepi II, Nitocris, etc.11th dynastyKings named Mentuhotep and Intef12th dynastyAmenemhet I - IV, Senusret I-III18th dynastyAmenhotep I-IV, Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.19th dynastySety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.20th dynastySethnakht, Ramesses IIIRamesses IV - XI 25th dynastyAlara, Kashta, Piye,Shabaka, Shabataka,Taharqa, Tanutamun, etc.Cleopatra VII PhilopatorQueens (D1-6)- Old KingdomQueens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.Queens (D16-20)- New KingdomQueens (D21-29)- Late Period Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)High Priests of AmunGod's Wives of AmunHigh Priests of PtahViceroys of NubiaWho's who of New Kingdom Amarna Period
AkhenatenQueen Nefertitiinscriptions Queen Nefertiti.Queen KiyaSmenkhareTutankhamenTombs at AmarnaHouses at Amarna Tombs:
Valley of the Kings, Valley of the QueensTheban Tombs,Tombs at AbydosTombs at El Kab Tombs in AswanEarly dynastic SaqqaraNew Kingdom SaqqaraThe Unis Cemetary Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetaryGiza Mastaba 2000 cemetary Giza Mataba 2300 cemetaryGiza Mastaba 4000 cemetary Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320Tomb KV35
The High Priests of Amun
(Thanks to Sesen and Rozette for some of these)I have attempted to provide some references for these officials. This is not meant to be a thorough bibliography (alas, not enough time..) but an attempt to show at least some places where the existence of these individuals is attested.
18th dynasty
Thuty: First Prophet of Amun and Overseer of the treasurers. Time of Ahmose. From funerary cone in the Metropolitan Museum. The cone is inscribed for “The First Prophet of Amun and Overseer of Treasurers, Thuty The funerary cones make mention of “The good God Neb-pehty-Re (Ahmose) (The Scepter of Egypt II, by W. C. Hayes pg 44 and 59.)Minmontu : Known from a funerary cone from Thebes. UC37666. Temp Ahmose.A heart scarab of Minmontu called Senres is in the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum."The owner of this jadeite heart scarab was one of the first high priests of Amun of Karnak. His name was Min-Montu, and he was called Senres, meaning "The brother has awakened again". It seems likely that an older brother died before his birth and his parents recognised their dead child in the new-born. He lived during the reign of the first king of the 18th Dynasty, Ahmose. The underside is inscribed with the heart spell." Text from the Global Egyptian Museum (GEM)Hapuseneb, High priest of Amun, Temp. Hatshepsut TT67. Parents: Hepu (third lector of Amun) and Ahhotep (Royal concubine); Wife: Amenhotep. Brother: Sa-Amun; Sister: Ahmose; Sons: Djehutjmes-machet, User-pekht, Aa-cheper-ka-ra-nefer; Daughters: Henut, Henut-nefert, Sen-seneb, Ta-em-resefu From Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf): "Hepusoneb (H . pw-snb), First prophet of Amun, etc., headless, son of Hepu (H. pw) and Ahhotep (J i h. ), with text mentioning Amun lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands, in Bologna, Museo Civico Archeologico, 1822. (Probably from Thebes.)"Five cones belonging to Hapuseneb are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum. His titles are Hereditary Prince and Count, Treasurer of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, First Prophet of Amun, Overseer of the Priest of Upper and Lower Egypt, and Overseer of All the Works of the King. The Scepter of Egypt II, by W. C. Hayes pg. 113Hapuseneb was the first HPA to also hold the title of Overseer of the hem priests of Upper and Lower Egypt. The second Priest of Amun Puyemre was related to Hapuseneb through marriage: he was married to Hapuseneb’s daughter Seniseneb. Seniseneb was a divine adoratrice of Amun and a temple singer. Thutmose III: A New Biography, by O’Conner and Cline (eds) pg. 107, 110Senenu was High Priest of Amun and High Priest of Hathor in Hatshepsut’s Deir el-Bahari Temple. Thutmose III: A New Biography, by O’Conner and Cline (eds) pg.125Menkheperraseneb (I), High priest of Amun, Temp. Tuthmosis III (Possibly TT 86?). Possibly the uncle of Menkheperreseneb II? It was assumed up until recently (1990s ?) that there was one High Priest of Amun with the name of Menkheperraseneb. It was assumed that this individual had two Theban tombs (TT86 and TT112). There is a precenence for people with two tomb (Senenmut - favorite of Hatshepsut - for instance). Recently it seems to have become more widely accepted that there were two High Priests with the same name.Menkheperraseneb (II), High priest of Amun, Temp. Tuthmosis III TT 112. High Priest of Amun, Superintendent of the Gold and silver treasuries, Chief of the Overseers of Craftsmen Parents: Amenemhet and Taonet (King's nurse) Fazzini, Richard A., A Statue of a High Priest Menkheperreseneb in The Brooklyn Museum, in: Studies Simpson (pdf), 209-225. (ill.).See also funerary cones: UC 37578 - 79 - 80 - 81 - 82 - 83 Items of the High Priest(s) Menkheperre-soneb at the Metropolitan Museum include several funerary cones, a vase inscribed with his namesfrom Saqqara, and a scarab on which he is referred to by the title “Overseer of the Crafts of Amun” The Scepter of Egypt II, by W. C. Hayes pg. 129Dorman has argued that there are two HPA by the name of Menkheperre-seneb. A discussion of the identification and dating of the two HPA can be found in Thutmose III: A New Biography, by O’Conner and Cline (eds) pg108-109Ahmose - First Prophet in Deir el Bahari Temple A funerary cone of the Second Prophet of Amun Ahmose also records that he was First Prophet of Amun in Henket-ankh (Mortuary Temple of Tuthmosis III in Thebes) [Hayes pg.118]Amenemhat, high priest of Amun, Temp. Amenhotep II (?) TT 97. Father: Djehutyhotep (wab-priest, Overseer of the sandal makers of Amun)A funerary cone exists in the collection of University College, London: UC 37551Funerary cones of the First Prophet of Amun Amenemhet are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum. The Scepter of Egypt II, by W. C. Hayes pg.147Amenemhet, high priest of Amun in Karnak left an inscription outlining his career at Gebel el-Silsila. Thutmose III: A New Biography, by O’Conner and Cline (eds) pg.157Mery, high priest of Amun, Temp Amenhotep II TT 95 and 84. Parents: Nebpehtire (First prophet of Min of Koptos) and Hunayt (Chief nurse of the Lord of the Two Lands).; Wife: Dey On digitalegypt his titles are listed as: overseer of the priests of Upper and Lower Egypt, high priest of Amun, overseer of the fields of Amun, steward of Amun, overseer of the granaries (of Amun), overseer of the treasury. See UC37790 and UC37791From: Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf): "Mery (Mrjj), First prophet of Amun , with text mentioning Amun and Hathor mistress of Dendera, black granite in Cairo Mus. CG 973."The HPA Mery usurped the tomb of the royal herald Iamunedjeh for himself and his mother Thutmose III: A New Biography, by O’Conner and Cline (eds) pg. 89Ptahmose High Priest of Amen, Vizier of the South, Mayor of Thebes, Overseer of all the works, Overseer of all the Priests of Upper and Lower Egypt, Fan-bearer on the right side of the king. Served during the early part of the reign of Amenhotep III . (Redford thinks he served during the latter part of the reign.) Ptahmose is also known from a stela now in the museum in Lyon.Ptahmose is shown with his wife Apeny (Aypy), his sons Thutmosis (High priest of Horus) and Huy (met jeugdlok) as well as his daughters Nefertari, Mutemwia, Hemetnetjer, Mutnofret and another daughter named Nefertari. See: Varille A. Une stèle du vizir Ptahmes, contemporain d'Aménophis III (n° 88 du Musée de Lyon) [avec 1 planche]. 497-507 1,76 Bifao030_art_45.pdf See also museum page from LyonFunerary cones of the First Prophet of Amun Ptahmose are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum. The Scepter of Egypt II, by W. C. Hayes pg.27 See also: Amenhotep III, by O’Conner and Cline (eds), pg.194, 202
Stela of Ptahmose, from Lyon.This is a low gif image. See pdf file above for original.Meryptah, First prophet of Amen, etc., Temp Amenhotep III. Known from a statue mentioning Meryptah with Anen, Amenemhat and Si-Mut who were 2nd, 3rd and 4th prophet respectively. Aldred thinks that Meryptah succeeded Ptahmose and served until the end of the reign of Amenhotep III. Meryptah would have served from ca. year 20 of Amenhotep's reign until the end of that reign.Meryptah was granted burial in Thebes (Qurna). Some funerary items were recovered from a pit excavated in the early 19th century.Items include a kneeling statue of Meryptah singing a hymn of praise to Re. Two Theban Notables during the Later Reign of Amenophis III, by Cyril Aldred (Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1959)The Oriental Institute in Chicago has a statue of Meryptah: Meryptah (Mrjj-pt), First prophet of Amun, etc., with text mentioning Amun-Re lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands and Ptah [south of his] wall, in Chicago (Ill.), Oriental Institute Museum, 10796.From: Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf)The Metropolitan Museum possesses three stamped mud bricks inscribed for The First Prophet of Amun Mery-ptah The Scepter of Egypt II, by W. C. Hayes pg. 306Sennufer: Sn(.j)-nfr First prophet of Amun in Khentnufer, Chief steward of the King, Overseer of prophets of Min lord of Ipu and of Ptah foremost of ( Tje)nent, etc. Ägyptisches Museum, 21595. (Probably from Tell Bast), Ref Topographical Bibliography (pdf - s16)Maya, High Priest of Amen until year 4 of Akhenaten. Redford speculates that Maya is short for Ptahmose and that Ptahmose served from the end of the reign of Amenhotep III until the beginning of the time of Akhenaten.Donald B. Redford: The Identity of the High-Priest of Amun at the Beginning of Akhenaten's Reign Journal of the American Oriental Society ; Vol. 83, No. 2 (Apr., 1963), pp. 240-241Parennefer (also called Wennefer) was High Priest of Amen during the reigns of Tutankhamen and Horemheb Kampp, F., and K. J. Seyfried, Eine Rückkehr nach Theben, Antike Welt, Mainz 26 (1995), 325-342. (ill. incl. colours, plans). Kampp-Seyfried, Friederike, Die Verfemung des Namens pA-rn-nfr, in: Stationen. R. Stadelmann gewidmet, 303-319. (pl.).Kampp, F., Vierter Vorbericht über die Arbeiten des Ägyptologischen Instituts der Universität Heidelberg in thebanischen Gräbern der Ramessidenzeit, MDAIK 50 (1994), 175-188. (fig., plans, pl.).Nebwa: High Priest of Amun-Re of Paju; From the time of Horemheb. From Topographical Bibliography (pdf - s14) Nebwa Nb-wi, First prophet of Amun-Re of P3-jw (Tell el-Balamûn), son of Huy H.jj With wife Mutnefert(t) Mwt-nfr(t), Songstress of Amun of P3-jw, in Cairo Mus. CG 883 (JE 29092).
19th Dynasty
Nebneteru Tenry was High Priest of Amun under Sety I His wife Merytre was Chief of the Harem of Amun. Both are known from monuments of their son, the vsier Paser.Nebneteru Tenry and Merytre are mentioned in TT 106, the tomb of their son Paser, Governor of the Town and Vizier as well as on statues belonging to Paser. Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf): A statue in Copenhagen mentions Paser P3-sr , Governor of the Town and Vizier, etc. son of Nebneteru Tenry (Nb-ntrw Tnrj) and Merytre (Mrjjt-r) with text mentioning Amun-Re, Thoth, etc.A stamped brick (Museo Arch. Nazionale/Museo Egizio) can be found on the Global Egyptian Museum Site. The text reads:
r-pat hAty-a n niwt PAsr mAa-xrw sA tpy n Hm nTr Imn NbnTrw Dd-f *nryHereditary Prince and Count, Paser, justified, son of the First Prophet of Amun, Nebneteru, called TjenryNebwenenef, High priest of Amun, Temp Rameses II. TT 157. His wife was named Takhat. She held the titles of Chief of the Harem of Amun, and Songstress of IsisNebwenenef is shown followed by a fan-bearer appearing before Rameses II and (Merymut) Nefertari in a palace window. Nebwenenef is being appointed as High priest of Amun (year 1 of Rameses II). Before being appointed High Priest of Amun, Nebwenenef was High Priest of Hathor at Dendera and High Priest of Anhur at Thinis. After his appointment as High Priest of Amun, his son Sementawy became High Priest of HAthor. This post had apparently always been held by his family.Nebwnenef's tomb is discussed on the website maintained by the Universities of Heidelberg and Leipzig. Nebwenenef was also the owner of a mortuary temple at Thebes. Nebwenenef is one of only a select group of commoners who were allowed to construct a temple here. A plan of the temple as well as some photographs of stelaea and foundation deposits can be found at Digitalegypt (University College London)Ritner, R. K., Denderite Temple Hierarchy and the Family of Theban High Priest Nebwenenef: Block Statue OIM 10729, in: For His Ka. Essays Baer, 205-226. (fig.).
Nebwenenef (Detroit Museum) and statues of Nebwenenef and Takhat (TT157)Bekenkhons (I), High priest of Amun, Temp. Ramesses II. (TT35).Parents: Roma (First and Second Prophet of Amun) and Roma (Singer of Amun). Wife: Mertesger (Chief of the Harem of Amun) Jansen-Winkeln, K., The Career of the Egyptian High Priest Bakenkhons, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 52 (1993), 221-225.On the Global Egyptian Museum Site: "The rose-coloured granite sarcophagus belonging to Bakenkhonsu, First High Priest of Amun during the reign of Ramesses II. It is decorated with representations of funerary deities and bands of text."
Granite sarcophagus of Bakenkhons(u), now in the Liverpool MuseumUnnefer (Wennefer) : Time of Rameses II. Known from a family statue (in Copenhagen) dedicated to him by his son Ameneminet . The father of Unnefer is Minhotep, mother Maya. From Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf): "Unnufer (Wnn-nfr), First prophet of Amun, etc., son of Minhotep (Mnw-tp) and Maya (Mj3), dedicated by son Amenemonet (Jmn-m-jnt) , Overseer of works on all monuments of Ramesses II, etc., with text mentioning Amun-Re lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands, Min-Hor in Koptos, Ptah-Sokari lord of Shetyt, etc., in Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek."Unnefer was married to Isis, who was Chief of the Musicians of Amun; From Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf):Family group statue of Amenemonet (Jmn-m-jnt) , Chief of the Medjay, Overseer of works on the monuments of His Majesty etc., son of Unnufer (Wnn-nfr) , First prophet of Amun, and Esi (3st), Chief of the harîm of Amun, with twenty-two mummiform figures of relatives, in Naples, Museo Archeologico NazionalePaser: temp Rameses II. It is possible that this is the same man who served as Vizier for many years. If this is the case, then Paser was awarded the position of High Priest of Amun later in his career. Paser the Vizier was the son of the high priest of Amun Nebneteru Tenry, but the High Priest of Amun Paser never refers to his parents in the monuments he left as high priest.From Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf): "Paser (P3-sr) , First prophet of Amun, lower part, with text mentioning Amun, black granite, now in St Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum."Rama(ray), high priest of Amun, Rameses II - Merenptah. TT 283.
Statue of Roma-RoyWife: Tamut (name in niche in court), Tabest (name on stela in Museum in Leiden) On the stela Ramaray is given the titles: The Prince and Count, the God's Father, clean of hands, Priest of Kamutef, Overseer of the prophets of all the gods, Third Prophet of Amun, Second Prophet of Amun, First Prophet of Amun. (H.D. Schneider and M.J. Raven, Life and Death Under the Pharaohs, Australia, 1999 (?) , pg 40-41)Roy : temp Seti II. Son of Rama(ray) (the previous High Priest) according to a statue mentioned here His titles include: Greatest of Ra-Atum's seers in Thebes, second prophet of Amun, and first prophet of Amun. He has a son named Bakenkhonsu.Ramose : Known from a statue. It is possible that Ramose was a high priest of Amun at another temple (i.e. not Karnak). There was also an active cult of Amun at the temple of Deir el-Bahari for instance.From Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf): Ramosi (R -ms), First prophet of Amun, holding pedestal with the Theban Triad (head of Mut lost), Dyn. 19, in auction in Luzern. Minmose : Known from a statue in Leipzig. It is possible that Minmose was a high priest of Amun at another temple (i.e. not Karnak). There was also an active cult of Amun at the temple of Deir el-Bahari for instance.From Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf): Minmosi (Mnw-ms), First prophet of Amun, sandstone, end of Dyn. 19 or early Dyn. 20 in Leipzig, Ägyptisches Museum, Inv. 6021.A High Priest of Amun named Minmose is also mentioned on a statue of (Pa)Rahotep. On the statue, Rahotep's father the High priest of Ptah Pahemnetjer is shown with "his brother" Minmose, High priest of Amun. It is not clear to me if Minmose is a "brother" of Rahotep, or of Pahemnetjer. The name of Minmose is translated as Amsu-mose, but the hieroglyphs used are the same as those that are translated as Minmose.This statue is mentioned in: Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology; v.14 (1891-92)Hori : High Priest of Amun.Traditionally this High Priest is placed at the end of the 19th dynasty. Pammiger argues that Hori must date to the reign of Ramesses II (more precisely ca year 24). Hori is known to have had a son, the lieutenant-commander of chariotry, Kanakht.Pammiger, P., Hori, Hoherpriester des Amun, JEA 85 (1999), 226-230.Bakenkhons(II): temp Sethnakht to Ramesses III. Known from several monuments including a black granite statue at Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Son of Amenemopet. From Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf): "Bekenkhons (B3k-n-nsw), First prophet of Amun, etc., son of Amenemopet (Jmn-m-jpt), head and base with feet lost, with figure of Hathor chieftainess of Thebes in Djeser (Deir el-Bari) on front, sandstone, now in Louvre, (Probably from Deir el-Bari.)"And: "Bekenkhons B3k-n-nsw, First prophet of Amun, etc., son of Amenemopet Jmn-m-jpt, Overseer of recruits of the temple of Amun, with mention of deified Amenhotep I, lower part, granodiorite in Berlin, Ägyptisches Museum, 2082."From Topographical Bibliography etc (pdf): "Statue of Bekenkhons (B3k-n-h . nsw) , First prophet of Amun, etc., son of Amenemopet (Jmn-m-jpt), holding ram-headed standard, with text mentioning Amun-Re lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands, now in Boston MA, Museum of Fine Arts, 07.645. (Probably from Karnak.) "Ramessesnakht, High priest of Amun, Temp. Ramesses IV - Ramesses IX Tomb: TT 293. Father: Merubaste (Chief Steward of the Lord of the Two Lands) Ramessesnakht was married to Adjedet-Aat and had at least two sons: Nebamun and Amenhotep, and a daughter Tamerit. Tamerit was married to the Third Prophet of Amun, Amenemope and is identified as the daughter of Ramessesnakht and Adjedet-Aat in Amenemope's tomb (TT148).Ramessesnakht's wife was the daughter of the First Prophet of Nekhbet named Setau in El Kab. Ramessesnakht is depicted in Setau's tomb in El Kab. (see osirisnet)It is known that Ramessesnakht went on a quarrying expedition to the Wadi Hammamat during the reign of Ramesses IV and secured gold and galena (for eye paint) under Ramesses VII and IX. (f.i. Chapter 2 of Egyptian Historical Inscriptions of the Twentieth Dynasty by A. J. Peden.) Ramessesnakht was buried during the reign of Ramesses IX.Rock cut stela in the Wadi Hammamat record expeditions. In year 3 of Ramesses IV the High Priest Ramessesnakht lead an expedition consisting of some 8,368 men including a fully organized division of the Egyptian army (The Scepter of Egypt II, by W. C. Hayes pg.371)Amenhotep, The vizier, great confidante of his mater, first prophet of Amun-resonther, Ramses IX - XI.Son of Ramessesnakht.During the reign of Ramesses XI, the Viceroy of Nubia attacked Thebes to restore order. Paneshy besieged the high priest at the fortified temple of Medinet Habu. It is not known if the High Priest, Amenhotep, survived this attack.See: The Suppression of the High Priest Amenhotep, by Edward F. Wente, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1966Morales, A. J., The Suppression of the High Priest Amenhotep: A Suggestion to the Role of Panhesi, GM 181 (2001), 59-75.
Niwinski, A., Bürgerkrieg, militärischer Staatsstreich und Ausnahmezustand in Ägypten unter Ramses XI. Ein Versuch neuer Interpretation der alten Quellen, in: Gegengabe Brunner-Traut, 235-262. Discusses HPA Amenhotep, Panehesy and Herihor.Panehesy: The Viceroy of Nubia also became High Priest of Amun? This could be another individual or even another temple though.A shabti of the First Prophet of Amun Panehesy is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum. The Scepter of Egypt II, by W. C. Hayes pg.427Herihor: Temp Ramses XI. Herihor also served as general. Herihor was married to the lady Nodjmet, who may have been a sister of Ramses XI.Pa-ankh: temp Rameses XI His name is sometimes written as Piankhi. He was also a general and later founded the 21st dynasty. Possibly son-in-law of Herihor. Piankhi's wife is named Hereret.The order and family relation of Herihor and Piankh is not clear. See:Jansen-Winkeln, K., Das Ende des Neuen Reiches, Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde.119 (1992), 22-37.Rossler-Kohler, U., Pianch - Nedjemet - Anchefenmut -- eine Kleinigkeit, Göttinger Miszellen, 167 (1998), 7-8.Gundlach, R., Das Königtum des Herihor. Zum Umbruch in der ägyptischen Königsideologie am Beginn der 3. Zwischenzeit, in: Aspekte spätägyptischer Kultur. Festschrift Winter, 133-138. (also discusses Pinudjem I)
21st DynastyFor a genealogy of the family of 21st Dynasty HIgh Priests of Amun, see I: Vizier and Generalissimo. From year 16 of Nesibanebdjedet I he took on full Pharaonic titles. Son of Piankhi by Hereret. Father of Djedkhonsiufankh, Masaharta and Psusennes I. Wife: Isetemkheb II.A shabti can be found On the Global Egyptian Museum SiteSee also: Son of Pinudjem I and Isetemkheb II. Also served as Generalissimo. Served from at least year 16 until Year 24 of Nesibanebdjedet I. The mummies of Masaharta, his wife Tahuyeret and daughter Isetemkheb were found in TT320 (the Deir el-Bahari cache). See also: II: Son of Pinudjem I. Became HPA after his brothers during year 25 of Nesibanebdjedet I. Also served as Generalissimo.Sliwa, J., An unpublished stamped brick of Menkheperre, High Priest of Amun, Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization, Kraków 2 (1992), 23-26. (fig., ill.). Romer, M., Gottes- und Priesterherrschaft in Ägypten am Ende des Neuen Reiches. Ein religionsgeschichtliches Phänomen und seine Grundlagen, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz Verlag, 1994 Quote from AEB 94.0572: ".. an examination of the titles employed by Herihor and his successors Paiankh, Painedjem, Masaharta, and Menkheperre."Nesibanebdjedet II (Smendes II): Son of Menkeperre II and Isetemkheb III. Served as high Steward under his father and ultimately became HPA himself. Served as HPA under Amenemipet, Osorkon and Siamen. Pinudjem II: Son of Menkheperre II and Isetemkheb III. Followed his brother Nesibanebdjedet II as HPA.Pinudjem was married to his niece Nesikhonsu, the daughter of the High Priest of Amun Nesibanebdjedet and his wife Tahentdjehuty.An inscription on the wall of DB320 mentions: "Year 10 4 prt 20. Day of burial (krs) of the Osiris, high priest of Amon-Re king of the gods, great chief of the army, the leader Pinudjem, by the god's father of Amun, overseer of the treasury Djedkhonsiufankh; the god's father of Amun, scribe of the army, chief inspector Nespakashuty; the prophet of Amun ...enamun; the god's father of Amun Wennufer; by the king's scribe of the Place of Truth Bakenmut; the chief workman Pediamun; the chief workman Amenmose; the god's father of Amun, chief of secrets, Pediamun son of Ankhefenkhons" Other linen dockets are inscribed with:"Linen which the high priest of Amun Pinudjem son of Menkheperre made for Amun (in) Yr 7""Linen which the high priest of Amun Pinudjem (son of) Menkheperre made for Khons in Yr 9"(ref: Theban Royal Mummy Project)See also:, I., Der Totenbuch-Papyrus des Hohenpriesters Pa-nedjem II. (pLondon BM 10793/pCampbell). ISBN 3-447-03843-8[Publication of the important B.D. papyrus of the High Priest of Amun Pinodjem II (Pap. BM London 10793, also known as Pap. Campbell).]Psusennes? Von Beckerath argues for the existence of a Tanite king named Psusennes II who reigned after Siamun, and the existence of a Theban High Priest of Amun bearing the same name. (from: AEB 92.0450)von Beckerath, J., Noch einmal Psusennes II., GM 130 (1992), 17-19.
22nd DynastyShoshenq II: Son of Osorkon I and Maatkare II. Served as HPA at Karnak for large part of his father’s reign.Known from: A statuette of Bes, dedicated by Sheshonk Ššnk, First prophet of Amun-Re, Great general in chief, son of Osorkon I, Now in Durham, Oriental Museum, N.313. Topographical Bibliography (pdf - s26)Iuput: Son of Shoshenq I HPA for most of his father’s reign, and into the reign of his brother Osorkon II. 944-924 BCThis High Priest is mentioned on linenin the cache in DB320. Year 10 of Shoshenq I/Iuput: "Noble linen which the dual king (nsw bity) lord of he two lands Hedjkheperre son of Re lord of appearings Shoshenq-meramun made for his father Amun (in) year 10; noble linen which the high priest of Amon-Re, great chief of the army Iuput, true of voice, king's son of the lord of the two lands Shoshenq-meramun, made for his father Amun (in) Year 10"Another shorter inscription from year 11 is mentioned (ref: Theban Royal Mummy Project)Iuwlot: Son of Osorkon I. Probably became HPA late in the reign of Osorkon I and served until the early years of Takelot I. He records the height of the Nile in Karnak in year 5 of Takelot I. 924-894 BCNesibanebdjedet III: Son of Osorkon I. Served as HPA during the middle of the reign of his brother Takelot I. He records the height of the Nile in Karnak in years 8 and 14 of Takelot I. Also called Smendes. 884-874 BCHarsiese: Son of Soshenq II. Promoted to HPA under Osorkon II. 874-860 BC[…du/aw…] Possibly Pedubast. Son of Harsiese.. May have become HPA on the elevation of Harsiese to kingship. 860-855 BCNimlot III: Son of Osorkon II. Became HPA after year 16 . The name of his predecessor […du/aw…] was erased. 855-845 BCTakelot F: Son of Nimlot III. Followed his father as HPA before probably becoming a Theban King as Takelot II. 845-840 BCOsorkon B: Eldest son of Takelot II. Probably became HPA after his father assumed kingship. 840-785 BC Later took the throne as Osorkon III.Osorkon F: probably son of Rudamun and grand-son of Osorkon III. ?Harsiese B, son of […du/aw…] i.e. Pedubast? 835-800 BC.
25th DynastyHaremakhet: Son of Shabaka 704?-660 BCHarkhebi: Son of Haremakhet, Grand-son of Shabaka. Served as HPA until at least year 14 of Psamtik I. 660-644 BC[ 2 unattested HPA or vacant? 644-595]Ankhnes-Neferibre, The God's Wife of Amun also served as High Priest of Amun. 595-560 BCNitocris B, Daughter of Pharaoh Ahmose (II). 560-550?
Later PeriodsPafiy First prophet of Amun-Re from early Dyn. 26, From Statue inscription: Pefiy P3.f-jj, First prophet of Amun-Re, etc., son of Nakht Nh.t (i.e. Harnakht now in Moscow, State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts Topographical Bibliography (pdf - s20)

Saturday, January 24, 2009

Afro Video:A Peoples Culture Expressed Through Media

Afro Video:A Peoples Culture Expressed Through Media

A Dream Realized By FF*




Spirit of Sankofa expresses:
Truth & Knowledge , may it fill your house:
Brother Cipher has lefted us some jewels
that are glistening with much enlightment
In the form of Lyric's of Loyalty*

Like Gold and Silver births a new life of electrum,
A Solar eclipse of darkness is how I effect them,
My third eye like Ra burns throughout the ages
Check me out back in the day on papyrus pages.
My name spelled out in the Medu Neters
Harmonic procession of the Pyramid meters.
Hand claps in an organized strength of unity,
Just like Black people are suppose to be.
But somebody came along and w/ a bag of tricknology
Now it's all about me, instead of we, check out the Trinity.
Osiris , Isis, Hours, then Joseph, Mary and Jesus,
All became white, and that's when they seized us.
Mental enslavement was in full effect, but the chains are now rusted
Black people voted for Obama, tired of being disgusted
He's just one man but it could be a cultural change in the USA.
An African name running the country, you'd ever thought you see the day?
All things are possible we can change the world Black People
Doesn't matter if you worship around a Black Kaaba or under a white steeple
Like the Black writer Alexander Dumas said, "All for one, one for all,"
Germany tore down their OPPRESSIVE wall , we can do it to Ya'll

The CIPHERX Chronicles*