Positive Progress Through The Benevolent Use Of Knowledge

Saturday, November 6, 2010

Ancient Egyptian Medicine Pt 1

In Sickness and in Health: Preventative and Curative Health Care

If one had to be ill in ancient times, the best place to do so would probably have been Egypt. Not that an Egyptian's chances of survival would have been significantly better than those of his foreign contemporaries, but at least people had the satisfaction of being treated by physicians whose were renowned all over the ancient world.

Unlike the injuries caused by accidents or fighting, which were dealt with by the zwn.w (sunu), or scorpion stings and snake bites for which the xrp srqt (kherep serqet), the exorcist of Serqet, knew the appropriate spells and remedies, illnesses and their causes were mysterious. The Egyptians explained them as the work of the gods, caused by the presence of evil spirits or their poisons, and cleansing the body was the way to rid the body of their influence.

Incantations, prayers to the gods - above all to Sekhmet the goddess of healing, curses, and threats, often accompanied by the injection of nasty smelling and tasting medicines into the various bodily orifices, were hoped to prove effective.

Montemhet, 4th prophet of Amen, put his faith in the god he served:

I bow down to your (i.e. Amen's) name
May it be my physician,
May it drive pain away from me.
Statue inscription of Montemhet, Third Intermediate Period

M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Volume III, p.30

Preventive measures included prayers and various kinds of magic, above all the wearing of amulets. The importance of the diet was partially recognized [30], and the natural human craving for diversity and rich well-irrigated soil resulted in a diet which was mostly reasonably balanced: carbohydrates from cereals, vitamins from fruit and vegetables, and proteins mostly from fish. Milk and milk products were just occasionally consumed, as were legumes, seeds and oil.

The Healers and Their Art

The Egyptian priest-physician, wab sxmt (wab sekhmet), had a number of important functions. First, to discover the nature of the particular entity possessing the person and then attack, drive it out, or otherwise destroy it. This was done by some powerful magic for which rituals, spells, incantations, talismans and amulets were used. Sekhmet priests seem also to have been involved in the prevention of plagues, inspection of sacrificial animals and even veterinary medicine. Other healers like the zwn.w (sunu) and the za.w (sau) seem to have had recourse to the same methods and scriptures as the wab.

The role deities and their servants played in the healing process is described in the apocryphal story of Bentresh, a daughter of the chief of Bekhten, who fell ill, and Ramses II sent her Thutemhab, a scribe experienced in his heart, who can write with his finger. After Thutemhab had seen the princess and concluded that she was possessed of a spirit, he returned to Egypt, and Khonsu-in-Thebes-Beautiful-Rest agreed [51] that Khonsu-the-Plan-maker, the great god, smiting the evil spirits should be sent to Bekhten:

This god arrived in Bekhten in a full year and five months. Then the chief of Bekhten came, with his soldiers and his nobles, before Khonsu-the-Plan-Maker. He threw himself upon his belly, saying: "Thou comest to us, thou art welcome with us, by command of the King Usermare-Setepnere (Ramses II)."

Then this god went to the place where Bentresh was. Then he wrought the protection of the daughter of the chief of Bekhten. She became well immediately.

Tale written down in the late first millennium BCE
James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Three


Physical medicines such as herbs were mostly expected to assuage the pain only, while magic effected the cure. A section in the Papyrus Ebers is about charms and invocations used to encourage healing. One spell, recited before taking an herbal remedy, reads as follows: "Come Remedy! Come thou who expellest (evil) things in this my stomach and in these my limbs!"

The wording of these spells is often followed by a recommendation, such as: "Truly excellent. Millions of times."

Not all of Egyptian medicine was based on wishful thinking (moreover we should never disregard the effect faith can have on our health), much was the result of experimentation and observation, and physical means supplemented the magical ones:
Magic is effective together with medicine. Medicine is effective together with magic.

From the Ebers papyrus

Apart from spiritual healing and herbal medicine, they practiced massage.

Examination of a woman aching in her legs and her calves after walking
You should say of it 'it is discharges of the womb'.
You should treat it with a massage of her legs and calves with mud until she is well.

Kahun Medical Papyrus

Manipulation made extensive use of therapeutic herbs and foods, but surgery was only rarely part of their treatments. According to Herodotus there was a high degree of specialization among physicians:

The practice of medicine is very specialized among them. Each physician treats just one disease. The country is full of physicians, some treat the eye, some the teeth, some of what belongs to the abdomen, and others internal diseases.

Herodotus, Histories 2,84

Nothing certain is known about the way physicians acquired their medical knowledge, but one surmises that after (or in parallel to) their formation as scribes they were apprenticed to practicing healers. It has also been suggested that the Houses of Life, associated with Sekhmet, were teaching centers for physicians.

When Harsiese, the fictional physician in the prologue to the Instruction of Ankhsheshonq was called to the royal court he underwent some quizzing by the king himself and then became a member of the medical team looking after the pharaoh:

Pharaoh asked him many things and he answered them all. of the chief physician; and the chief physician did nothing without consulting Harsiese son of Ramose about it. A few days later it happened that the chief physician went to his fathers (i.e. died) Harsiese son of Ramose was made chief physician, and he was given everything that belonged to the chief physician entirely...

The Instruction of Ankhsheshonq
M. Lichtheim: Ancient Egyptian Literature Vol. 3, p.161


Like all scribal professions medicine was a domain dominated by men. But occasionally women succeeded not just in acquiring medical knowledge but also in climbing to the top of the scribal hierarchy.

An Old Kingdom female physician named Peseshet left a stela which recorded her positions of Overseer of Funerary Priestesses and of Overseer of Female Physicians.

Many of the poorer Egyptians probably had little contact with real physicians and called for the local medic, a workman like Paheripedjet at Deir el Medina who was frequently excused from his normal duties to attend to the sick. He seems to have had some medical knowledge, knew how to prepare medicines and made home visits.
The medical knowledge.

A few papyri have survived, from which we can learn about Egyptian medicine:

The Edwin Smith Papyrus

Describing surgical diagnosis and treatments;

the Ebers Papyrus on ophthalmology, diseases of the digestive system, the head, the skin and specific maladies like aAa, which some think may have been a precursor of aids and others, perhaps more reasonably, consider to have been a disease of the urinary tract, a compilation of earlier works that contains a large number of prescriptions and recipes,

the Kahun Gynecological Papyrus,
the Berlin Medical Papyrus,
the London Medical Papyrus.

the Hearst medical papyrus repeats many of the recipes found in the Ebers papyrus.
the Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden contains a number of spells for treating physical ailments.

The treatments in these texts are often organized into groups. The Edwin Smith Papyrus for instance opens with eight texts concerning head wounds, followed by nineteen treatments of wounds to the face (forehead, eyebrows, nose, cheeks, temples, mouth, chin), six descriptions of how to deal with injuries to throat and neck, five dealing with collar-bones and arms, and seven with chest complaints.


It appears that all this knowledge dates to the third millennium BCE, even though the papyrus itself is of a much later date. Some important notions concerning the nervous system originated with the Egyptians, a word for brain is used here for the first time in any written language: ... the membrane enveloping his brain, so that it breaks open his fluid in the interior of his head.

The Edwin Smith papyrus, case 6

Acting conservatively, they knew how to treat injuries to the brain without killing the patient, but on the whole their understanding of the brain and its functions was superficial: they considered thinking to be a function of the heart.

Their dissection of bodies during mummification seems not to have added greatly to their knowledge of the inner workings of the human body. Possibly because mummifiers and physicians did not move in the same circles, but also because of the way the organs were removed; ripped out through a small incision in the corpse's flank or, in the case of the brain, scooped out in small portions through a nostril.

They had some anatomical knowledge though, had made the connection between pulse and heart. They also had understanding of the circulation of the blood, thank to head physician and genius Imhotep.

Now if the priests of Sekhmet or any physician put his hands (or) his fingers upon the head , upon the back of the head upon the two hands , upon the pulse , upon the two feet , he measures (h't ) the heart , because its vessels are in the back of the head and in the pulse ; and because its pulsation is in every vessel of every member.

The Edwin Smith papyrus, case 1

This knowledge reached Greece through the doctors of Alexandria. The anatomical properties they were best aware of were superficial, pertaining to accessible body parts such as bones of limbs or the infants' fontanelles
fluttering under the fingers like the weak place of an infant's crown before it becomes whole

The Edwin Smith papyrus, case 6


Often we cannot translate the specialist expressions used in the medical texts, both of the affected body parts such as the mt.w, generally translated as "vessels" or the like and apparently comprising blood vessels, sinews and nerves, and the ingredients of their medicines. Sometimes their knowledge was either not very exact or unfortunately expressed. One will wonder for a few moments underneath what the bronchi were to be found:

"A dislocation in his two collar-bones" means a displacement of the heads of his sickle-bone(s). Their heads are attached to the upper bone of his breast to his throat, over which is the flesh of his gorge, that is the flesh that is over his bosom. Two ducts (i.e. the bronchi) are under it: one on the right and (one) on the left of his throat (and) of his bosom; they lead to his lungs.

The Edwin Smith papyrus, case 34


That this theoretical knowledge was often successfully applied is proven by archaeological finds in the workers' tombs at Gizeh for instance. Skeletons with broken arms that had been set, a man who had survived the amputation of a leg by fourteen years and another brain surgery by two years.

The diseases

Everyday complaints like stomach upsets, bowel trouble and headaches went probably mostly untreated, even if the physicians could offer remedies:
For the evacuation of the belly:
Cow's milk, 1; .grains, 1; honey 1; mash, sift, cook; take in four portions.

To remedy the bowels:
Melilot (?), 1; dates, 1; cook in oil; anoint sick part.

To refresh an aching head:
Flour, 1; incense, 1; wood of wa, 1; waneb plant, 1; mint (?), 1; horn of a stag, 1; sycamore (?) seeds, 1; seeds of [ (?)], 1; mason's plaster (?), 1; seeds of zart, 1; water, 1; mash, apply to the head.

To renew bowel movements in a constipated child:
An old book, boil in oil, apply half on the belly to reestablish evacuation.

Ebers Papyrus

G. Maspero, Etudes de mythologie et d'achéologie égyptiennes III, 1898, pp.289f.
The common cold plagued the ancient Egyptians as it still does us today, and their remedy, the milk of a mother who has given birth to a boy, was probably as effective as anything we have got today. Moreover they had a tried and true spell to go with it.

May you flow out, catarrh, son of catarrh, who breaks the bones, who destroys the skull, who hacks in the marrow, who causes the seven openings in the head to ache.

Ebers Papyrus

While some Egyptians lived to a ripe old age like Ramses II or Psalmist I's daughter Nitocris who reigned as God's Wife for more than sixty years, the age at death was only in a minority of cases above thirty-five years, with bilharziasis (schistosomiasis) - a disease difficult not to contract in a country flooded for months every year - a common cause of anemia, female infertility, a debilitating loss of resistance to other diseases and subsequent death.

The Ebers Papyrus addresses some of the symptoms of the disease and in two columns discusses treatment and prevention of bleeding in the urinal tract (haematuria) [6]. The Hearst Papyrus cites antimony disulfide as a remedy.

Insect borne diseases like malaria and trachoma, an eye disease, were endemic; plagues spread along the trade routes and a number of yadet renpet (jAd.t rnp.t) epidemics reported in Egyptian documents are thought by some to have been outbreaks of bubonic plague.

The following charm has been interpreted as referring to the plague, as one of its symptoms is a dark discoloration of the skin:

Spell for the disease of the Asiatics: Who is all-knowing like Re? Who is thus all-knowing? This god who blackens the body with char-coal? May this Highest God be seized!
pHearst 11,12

After a German translation in Jürgen Kraus, Die Demographie des Alten Ägypten, Göttingen 2004, p.187

Mosquitoes also spread filarial worms which caused the disfiguring elephantiasis.
This disease was not very prevalent but caused immense suffering to its victims.
Infectious diseases were rampant in the relatively densely populated Nile valley, where practically the whole population lived within a narrow strip of land along the river, which at times was only a few hundred metres wide, and their incidence was dependent to some degree on the seasons.

Smallpox, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, jaundice and relapsing fever were responsible for many deaths, above all during spring and summer. The ubiquity of water during the inundation brought with it a different set of ailments, chief among them probably malaria, which were the main cause for mortality in late autumn; while the cooler weather of autumn and winter seems to have favored the outbreak of respiratory illnesses.

A child's vertebra showing signs of tubercular infection
Source: V.Easy

Trichinae afflicted the pigs, parasitic worms and tuberculosis the cattle and were occasionally passed on to the human population. Human tuberculosis was widespread; Leprosy on the other hand, caused by bacteria similar to the tubercle bacillus, is badly documented and was apparently relatively rare, possibly because of an immunity TB sufferers acquired. Some think that leprosy originated in Egypt and spread to the Levant and Europe along the migration and trade routes, others contend that there is no proof of its existence in ancient times.

Silicosis of the lungs, the result of breathing in airborne sand particles, is documented and was a frequent cause of death, as was pneumonia.
The various kinds of malignant tumors were almost as frequent then as they are nowadays in comparable age and gender groups.

Eye infections are a common complaint in Africa. In ancient Egypt they were at least in part prevented by the application of bactericidal eye paint. The ingredients of some of the remedies may not have been as difficult to come by in a civilization, where the brain of the dead was removed in little bits from the skull during mummification and discarded, as it would be in a modern western country:
Prescription for the eye, to be used for all diseases which occur in this organ:
Human brain, divide into its two halves, mix one half with honey, smear on the eye in the evening, dry the other half, mash, sift, smear on the eye in the morning.

Ebers Papyrus
G. Maspero, Etudes de mythologie et d'achéologie égyptiennes III, 1898, p.290.

The hard physical toil, often repetitive, caused great harm to the bones and joints of the labourers after only a few years of being subjected to it. Those who survived into old age were victims of the same infirmities that still plague the aged like cardio-vascular diseases, arthritis, from which Ramses II suffered, and probably dementia.

Congenital diseases were not infrequent and often brought about early death as the burials of infants bear out. Their causes may have been environmental, nutritional or social.

Inbreeding, not infrequent among the royals, was probably also not rare among the common people largely bound to the soil: the occurrence of a sixth finger or toe in mummies, interpreted by some as the result of inbreeding, has been noted a number of times, as has the high incidence of spina bifida occulta in the Bahariye Oasis during Graeco-Roman times; but there is no evidence that the union of healthy close relatives would result in defective offspring in populations which are not isolated.

Open wounds were often treated with honey, but sepsis was one of the commonest causes of death. When lockjaw set in due to a tetanus infection, physicians knew they were powerless against this affliction:

Thou shouldst say regarding him: "One having a gaping wound in his head penetrating to the bone, perforating the sutures of his skull; he has developed ty, his mouth is bound, (and) he suffers with stiffness in his neck. An ailment not to be treated."

The Edwin Smith papyrus, case 7

Instances of diseases, which are rare today, were also found: in a First Intermediate Period cemetery at Abydos the skeleton of a child has been discovered which had suffered from osteoporosis.

Little is known about pregnancy and childbirth in ancient Egypt, and on the basis of a few literary hints one surmises that, unless there were extraordinary problems, physicians were not involved. There was a store of knowledge concerning women, as is reflected in the Kahun Gynecological papyrus, the Greater Berlin Papyrus and others, which dealt with urinary problems, pains in the abdomen, legs and genitals, fertility and conception.

Dietary deficiencies

A restricted diet caused or aggravated a number of ailments, some with fatal outcome. There were times when malnutrition was widespread. Prehistoric dental records suggest that health was poor during much of that period, and improved with the increasing adoption of agriculture; but even in historic times when the supply of food was generally assured, the growth of the population was often stunted. Grown males reached a height of about 1.60 m and females 10 cm less during the early Middle Kingdom. Because of vitamin and other deficiencies.

Herbal Medicine

Herbs played a major part in Egyptian medicine. The plant medicines mentioned in the Ebers papyrus for instance include opium, cannabis, myrrh, frankincense, fennel, cassia, senna, thyme, henna, juniper, aloe, linseed and castor oil - though some of the translations are less than certain. Cloves of garlic have been found in Egyptian burial sites, including the tomb of Tutankhamen and in the sacred underground temple of the bulls at Saqqara. Many herbs were steeped in wine, which was then drunk as an oral medicine.

Egyptians thought garlic and onions aided endurance, and consumed large quantities of them. Raw garlic was routinely given to asthmatics and to those suffering with bronchial-pulmonary complaints. Onions helped against problems of the digestive system. (e.g. Ebers 192

Garlic was an important healing agent then just as it still is to the modern Egyptian and to most of the peoples in the Mediterranean area: Fresh cloves are peeled, mashed and macerated in a mixture of vinegar and water. This can be used to gargle and rinse the mouth, or taken internally to treat sore throats and toothache. Another way to take garlic both for prevention as well as treatment is to macerate several cloves of mashed garlic in olive oil.

Applied as an external liniment or taken internally it is beneficial for bronchial and lung complaints including colds. A freshly peeled clove of raw garlic wrapped in muslin or cheesecloth and pinned to the undergarment is hoped to protect against infectious diseases such as colds and influenza.

Coriander, C. Sativum (e.g. pHearst 102, 124 was considered to have cooling, stimulant, carminative and digestive properties. Both the seeds and the plant were used as a spice in cooking to prevent and eliminate flatulence, they were also taken as a tea for stomach and all kinds of urinary complaints including cystitis.

Coriander leaves were commonly added fresh to spicy foods to moderate their irritating effects. It was one of the herbs offered to the gods by the king, and seeds were found in the tomb of Tutankhamen and in other ancient burial sites.
Cumin, Cumin cyminum (e.g. Hearst 28, 55, 125 is an umbelliferous herb indigenous to Egypt. The seeds were considered to be a stimulant and effective against flatulence.

They were often used together with coriander for flavoring. Cumin powder mixed with some wheat flour as a binder and a little water was applied to relieve the pain of any aching or arthritic joints. Powdered cumin mixed with grease or lard was inserted as an anal suppository to disperse heat from the anus and stop itching.

Leaves from many plants, such as willow, sycamore, acacia (e.g. Ebers 105, 415 or the ym-tree, were used in poultices and the like (e.g. Smith 46. Tannic Acid derived from acacia seeds commonly helped for cooling the vessels (e.g. pHearst 95, and heal burns. Castor oil, (e.g. Ebers 25 and 251 figs (e.g. Ebers 41 and dates, were used as laxatives.

Tape worms, the snakes in the belly, were dealt with by an infusion of pomegranate root in water, which was strained and drunk. The alkaloids contained in it paralyzed the worms' nervous system, and they relinquished their hold. Ulcers were treated with yeast, as were stomach ailments.

Some of the medicines were made from plant materials imported from abroad. Mandrake (e.g. pHearst 109, 168, 185, introduced from Canaan and grown locally since the New Kingdom, was thought to be an aphrodisiac and, mixed with alcohol, induced unconsciousness.

Cedar oil, an antiseptic,originated in the Levant. The Persian henna was grown in Egypt since the Middle Kingdom, and - if identical with henu mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus - was used against hair loss. They treated catarrh with aloe which came from eastern Africa. Frankincense , containing tetrahydrocannabinol and used like hashish as pain killer (e.g. Kahun 12, was imported from Punt.

Minerals and animal products were used too. Honey and grease formed part of many wound treatments, mother's milk was occasionally given against viral diseases like the common cold, fresh meat laid on open wounds and sprains, and animal dung was thought to be effective at times.

A cosmetics jar at the Cairo Museum bears the legend: "Eye lotion to be dispersed, good for eyesight." An Egyptian papyrus from 1500 BCE discusses recipes for treating conjunctivitis and cornea, iris, and eyelid problems. Lead-based chemicals like carbonates and acetates were popular for their therapeutic properties.

Malachite used as an eye-liner also had therapeutic value. In a country where eye infections were endemic, the effects of its germicidal qualities were appreciated even if the reasons for its effectiveness were not understood.


Saturday, October 23, 2010

4 Symbolic Elements

In these four elements symbolic of four supreme beings combined with the fifth element, The Human being (a source of creative will) (Hu). This is the source of all life forms on this great planet.

Ta (Earth), with Ma (Water) , ¾ of the planet earth surface is occupied by water. And re-aligned ourselves with Neteru, and even “Mother Nature”.

All from the primordial waters. And our etherian parents the (8) Eight Rashunaat (Ogdoad).

The life forces, Sekhem and find our way home, through the energies as ether on into the boundless universe as cell life forms beings. Universal Ba (inner soul) to give or sustain life Neb (spiritual masters of individuals) Bes. (Master, physical image of a deity.

Protected by the Ba (inner soul) Ba gives life and Neb (spiritual masters) sustains Ka. (Etheric double, spiritual body) , Sa (protect , guard), Hu (The Neter of offering) Khaibit (shadow).

SekhemChi, energy from the root seat, Setekht , Khu (fire, flame) sustains Neb (spiritual master). The Khat (physical dead body). To our physical parent Sedjet (Enneads).

We must attune ourselves with the elements that are in and around us daily. Through each awakening , sleeping and fleeting moment. As we elude ourselves that time is in motion. Time does not move forward, nor has it come from behind.

It has always been. Time does not ascend upward; nor has it descended from above. Time is now, now is the time, time is.

We must learn the realities of existence and reverse the process of self deterioration. , both physically and mentally, and with the “confirmed fact” become a part of all. The essence of our being is that we exist and with that confirmation existence is as we are. Time is as we be. All is , all acts, all does, all things are a part of all on into allness.


The baby of (Allness) is found in the womb of Quantum Physics, born inside-out in Ethernic existence.

So as a devoted Kemetic of the ancient Egyptian and order of Neter A’aferti known as…. Atum Re.

Sekhem – Chi Tepi – Hesp (Aura)

Each time you begin this journey it’s the first time.....
A Neter yourself , from which derives the word 'Nature'.

You maybe initiated, and re-initiated until Meskhenet vibrating all 4 Tepi Hespaat (Auras).

1. Blue, 2. Yellow, 3. Green, 4. Red


And then you may reverse the cycle, until the ancient ones arrange your existence in the great sight to flow in order. Once that perfected state has been reached. The inner being begins to elevate itself back into Kuluwm (All).

And back to Meshenet short paths of faith, belief and your diligent quest for facts and confirmation, has led you to the end of belief, faith and to the beginning journey on the path of truth and facts and Rennet - fortune.


The Golden City , Egypt

(Egypt of the West)


The Great Re Sun (Ra) with its thousands (1000’s) of Rays (‘Re’) of mental energy protecting each era of what’s called time.

A great crystal city must be born, on earth as it is in heaven, for the higher learning when the spiritual Neteru (Masters) must descend and ascend to seek those worthy of the best kept secrets; best kept sacred.

Atum-Re. I am he who will harold in this great resurrection of the children of the Neter (Deity’s) with the great alignment of the planet at the millennium 5/5/2000 A.D.

The element site, this like El Maguraj is not a new rite, A fabricated initiation, but a long thought forgotten rite,, that was a part of our ancient but now resurrected to present day culture.

When we ruled....... in the heavens and came to the earth, and in due respect of utilizing the provisions of this new environment, we gave thanks and showed appreciation through this most sacred and ancient ritual.

If you prove to be worthy, you many continue to walk the path, stand amongst the Nebu, Neteru, the Anunnagi, the Nommo, the Eluls.

It is these four ancient and supreme races of beings who are responsible for bringing the Homo Sapien into existence and clicking on the light called Ba (soul).

Which is that state of expression that was needed to show through, Taful (prayer) , Through Maguraj, (the journey within) and again through this great ritual.

Our appreciation for the boundless gifts, and our willingness to cooperate, participate in nature and its generosity. The Source, which is ever nourishing us with the fruits in which they bring forth from Ta, (Earth), substance, and the Mu (water).

Which through moistness germinates and kindles life in Nature, and the Nefu (Air) which transports the seeds for growth, to sustain the body and trigger the ether, through proper breathing.

Through Sutukh (fire) the sun that stimulates growth, and the flames that cooks our food, we must remember we were not alone, we are never alone.

El Juzrun Dakka – The element site.

The Maguraj site, is directly aligned with the star constellation Sabtu (Orion)

It is no coincidence that the element sight, El Juzrun Dakka is directly aligned with the Taurus star constellation consists of the Zeta star, Al Natu, Alderbaran, Pleiades, Hyades and Lambda.

The key to measure the distance of star’s in star clusters, Taurus is the symbol of “The bull”.

It is also the Greek symbol of Tau, which was adapted from the Egyptian symbol the Shen. (Refer to amulets.

Taurus the bull is one of the 12 constellations of the zodiac, which is Mentu. Its brightest star Kiymah ‘pleiades’ is positioned approximately 500 light years away from Ta (earth).

Pleiades is the 7th star system in Orion,the 16th galaxy. The brightest star of Pleiades is called ‘Eta Tauri”.

The star cluster of Taurus constellation

1. Zeta Star 2. Al Natu 3. Alderbaran 4. Pleiades 5. Hyades 6. Lambda ….

Is the key to measuring the distance between stars.

Did you know?

How Halloween started….
Halloween custom goes back 2,000 yrs. It was based on a ceremony that was held around the first of November. The ceremony was led by Druids, who were Celtic priests in Great Britain, Ireland and parts of France.

During the event, they honored the souls of the dead who returned to Earth that night. As part of the celebration, people burned bonfires and wore costumes.

In some parts of the world, black cats are thought to be good luck.


Sunday, October 10, 2010

Ninetjer (Nynetjer) The Third King of Egypt's 2nd Dynasty

by Jimmy Dunn

As we descend into the murky far past of Egypt's history, there is no surprise that historical details become blurred, and this certainly applies to the period between the death of Qaa at the end of the 1st Dynasty and the accession of Netjerikhet Djoser in the 3rd Dynasty. Most of the kings of the 2nd Dynasty remain obscure, and we frequently know little more about them than Egyptologists of a generation past. However, the identity and order of the first three kings is certain, thanks to an inscribed statue in the Cairo Museum, and other contemporary monuments and later kings lists can be reconciled with reasonable certainty for the first five rulers.

However, the Palermo Stone records a significant drop in the average height of the annual inundation of the Nile River, and therefore it is possible, if not likely, that ecological factors may have produced tensions and for a while, at least towards the end of the Dynasty, Egypt may have even been divided. Yet, up until and through the reign of Ninetjer, the Two Lands seems to have been ruled as one.

A granite statuette of the mortuary priest named Hetepdief, implies (because their names are listed on his shoulder) that there was continuity between the first three kings of the 2nd Dynasty, for their mortuary cults were served by only one individual, and it is known that Ninetjer maintained the mortuary cult of at least one predecessor.An inscribed stone vessel discovered in the Step Pyramid juxtaposes the serekh of Ninetjer and the ka-chapel of Hetepsekhemwy.

Ninetjer (Nynetjer) was this kings Horus name, and simply means "godlike", or "He Who Belongs to the God". The term god probably in this instance references Re, the sun god.


Ninetjer is actually by far the best attested king of the early 2nd Dynasty. Given the position of his titulary on the Palermo Stone, he must have ruled Egypt for at least thirty-five years, though Manetho gives him forty-seven.

In fact, most of what we know of this king is derived from the annals recorded on the Palermo Stone, where the whole fourth register records events between his fifth or sixth year through his twentieth or twenty-first.

However, the king is also evidenced by three fine tombs in the elite cemetery at North Saqqara containing sealings of Ninetjer, as well as one across the Nile in the Early Dynastic necropolis at Helwan.

There were additionally five different jar-sealings of the king discovered in a large mastaba near Giza. However, more sealings of Ninetjer eventually led to the identification of the king's own tomb at Saqqara (though some scholars doubt that this is clearly his tomb).


From the Palermo Stone, we learn of the foundation of a chapel or estate named Hr-rn during the king's seventh year on the throne. Otherwise, most of the events evidenced on that record are regular ritual appearances of the king and various religious festivals.

A festival of Sokar apparently was held every six years during his reign, and the running of the Apis bull was recorded twice during years nine and fifteen of his reign. Most of the festivals recorded during his reign were held in the region of Memphis, with the exception of a ceremony associated with the goddess Nekhbet of Elkab during year nineteen.

The fact that most activity associated with this king occurred in the region of Memphis may be important. Little evidence of the king is found outside of this region and it may be that his activities was largely, if not completely confined to Lower Egypt. Towards the end of his reign, there was a good deal of internal tension in Egypt, perhaps even civil war.

The Palermo Stone tantalizes us with the possibility of this beginning in Ninetjer's thirteenth year. It records the attack of several towns including one who's name means "north land" or "House of the North" (the other city was Shem-Re). Some have interpreted this entry in the Palermo Stone to mean that Ninetjer had to suppress a rebellion in Lower, or Northern Egypt.

Unfortunately, the Palermo Stone ends with the nineteenth year of his reign. However, inscriptions on stone vessels, which probably date to the latter part of his reign, appear to record several other events, such as a four occurrence of the Sokar Festival, which probably took place in year twenty-four, and the "seventeenth occasion of the [biennial] census", which may have occurred in his thirty-fourth year on the throne.


Other than the various inscribed stone vessels, only two other artifacts have been unearthed that bear the king's name. One of these is a small ivory vessel from the Saqqara area, but the other is a small statue of considerable significance, both to the king's history and especially Egyptian art.

The statuette is made of alabaster, depicting the king on his throne and wearing the close fitting robe associated with the Sed-festival. Upon his head rests the White Crown of Lower Egypt.

This crude stone statuette of unknown provenance, now in the Georges Michailides Collection, represents the earliest complete and identifiable example of three-dimensional royal statuary from Egypt.

It also provides evidence that the king celebrated at least one Sed-festival, which would have been likely given the apparent long reign of Ninetjer.

While no contemporary inscriptions evidence this celebration, there was also a stock of stone vessels discovered in the Step Pyramid galleries that may have been prepared for this event.

Some scholars theorize that this further evidences the difficulties late in the king's reign, suggesting that these were never distributed due to domestic unrest which disrupted communications and weakened the authority of the central administration. Hence, the stone vessels were later appropriated by subsequent kings of the late 2nd and early 3rd Dynasties.

The name of Ninetjer's successor to the throne, Peribsen (Seth-Peribsen), unusually referencing the god Seth, is another piece of evidence indicating unrest. However, it is likely that Peribsen did not directly replace Ninetjer.

It is likely that as many as two or more shadowy rulers (Weneg, Sened and Nubnefer) took the throne of perhaps a divided Egypt. in the interim. However, most modern kings' lists do not reference all of them, and some list only one or two.

Atlas of Ancient Egypt

Sunday, October 3, 2010


Ash was the ancient Egyptian god of oases, as well as the Vineyards of the western Nile Delta and thus was viewed as a benign deity. Flinders-Petrie in his 1923 expedition to the Saqqara (also spelt Sakkara) found several references to Ash in Old Kingdom wine jar seals: I am refreshed by this Ash was a common inscription.

In particular, he was identified by the Ancient Egyptians as the god of the Libu and Tinhu tribes, known as the people of the oasis.

Consequently Ash was known as the lord of Libya, the western border areas occupied by the Libu and Tinhu tribes, corresponds roughly with the area of modern Libya. It is also possible that he was worshiped in Ombos, as their original chief deity.

In Egyptian Mythology, as god of the oases, Ash was associated with Set, who was originally god of the desert, and was seen as protector of the Sahara.

The first known recorded mention of Ash dates to the Protodynastic Period, but by the late 2nd Dynasty, his importance grew, and he was seen as protector of the royal estates, since the related god Set, in Lower Egypt, was regarded as the patron deity of royalty itself. Ash's importance was such that he was mentioned even until the 26th Dynasty.

Ash was usually depicted as a human, whose head was one of the desert creatures, variously being shown as a lion, vulture, hawk, snake, or the unidentified Set-animals. Indeed, depictions of Ash are the earliest known depictions, in ancient Egyptian art, to show a deity as a human with the head of an animal.

On occasion, Ash and Set were depicted similarly, as the currently unidentified Set-Animal.

Some depictions of Ash show him as having multiple heads, unlike other Egyptian deities, although some compound depictions were occasionally shown connecting gods to Min. In an article in the journal Ancient Egypt (in 1923), and again in an appendix to her book.

The Splendor that was Egypt, Margaret Murray expands on such depictions, and draws a parallel to a Scythian deity, who is referenced in Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia universalis.

The idea of Ash as an import God is contested, as he was the God of Ombos far before Set's introduction sometime in Dynasty II. One of his titles is "Nebuty" or "He of Nebut" indicating this position.

Ash is sometimes seen as another name for Set-- similarly as one might give the name Ta-Bitjet for Serket, Dunanwy for Anti, or Sefkhet-Abwy for Sheshat.

King Tutankhamen’s Funerary Mask

King Tutankhamen’s Funerary Mask

Icon of ancient Egypt, the teenage pharaoh's funerary mask immortalizes his features in gold, glass, and semiprecious stones.

This and other treasures from his tomb, now in Cairo's Egyptian Museum, attract a constant swirl of visitors.

See more photos from the September 2010 story "King Tut’s Family Secrets."

See more photos of Egypt »

Photograph by Kenneth Garrett, National Geographic

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Khaba, Shadowy King of the Third Dynasty

We know very little about the King, who probably occupied the throne of Egypt near the end of the 3rd Dynasty, named Khaba, who's name means "The Soul Appears". His nswt-bity and nbty names are unknown. It has been suggested that the king's birth name might have been Teti.

In the Turnin King List, this king's name is marked as "erased", but is credited with a reign of six years. The fact that his name was marked as "erased" may mean that there were dynastic problems, or simply that the scribe who composed the Turin King List was unable to read his name from more ancient records.

Khaba is attested to at four, and perhaps five sites in Egypt, including a mastaba (Z-500) at Zawiyet el-Aryan, where eight alabaster bowls inscribed with the king's serekh in red ink were unearthed. This mastaba is located in an area about two kilometers south of the Giza Plateau, halfway between Giza and Abusir on the west bank of the Nile, adjacent to the so-called "layer pyramid". While there is no evidence from this unfinished pyramid itself to link it with Khaba, it is generally attributed to him on the basis of the inscribed stone bowls found nearby.


Evidence of Khaba in Southern Egypt is attested by sealings found at Hierakonpolis and Elephantine. Those from Hierakonpolis come from the Early Dynastic town, either from houses or from the Early Dynastic stratum beneath the Old Kingdom temple of Horus.

The Elephantine sealing was unearthed from the eastern town, and depicts a divine figure, perhaps the god Ash, holding a long scepter, flanked by serekhs of Khaba. There is also a diorite bowl of unknown provenance inscribed with the serekh of Khaba that is now in London's Petrie Museum, and another diorite bowl now in a private collection which is said to have come from Dahshur is likewise inscribed.

Unfortunately, even Khaba's position within the order of succession has not been established beyond doubt, though he most certainly ruled in the latter part of the 3rd Dynasty. Most scholars appear to believe that he was the next to last king of the dynasty, though it has been suggested that Khaba could be the Horus name of the last king, Huni. Stone bowls inscribed with the name of a king were common during the 1st and early 2nd Dynasties ending with the reign of Khasekhemwy, but are not attested to again until the reign of Sneferu. Hence, this appears to suggest that Khaba preceded Sneferu of the 4th Dynasty by only a short period.

Furthermore, the sealings of Khaba come from two sites where Huni erected small step pyramids, which also tends to suggest that Khaba might be identified as Huni.

Nevertheless, most scholars identify Khaba as one of Huni's predecessors. Because of the close architectural similarity between Sekhemkhet's unfinished pyramid and the one at Zawiyet el-Aryan, Khaba may be most plausibly identified as Sekhemkhet's immediate successor, provided that the layer pyramid indeed belongs to Khaba. The substructure of this pyramid is so very similar to the pyramid of Sekhemkhet that it must have been built very near in time to his.

Little else is know about this king, one of many Egyptian rulers who remain mostly anonymous. However, as a king ruling within a major dynasty, Khaba actually stands out for our lack of knowledge about him. Though almost always listed as one of the last kings of the 3rd Dynasty, many modern references otherwise ignore his reign. We know nothing of his family, or for that matter, any of his building projects beyond the uninscribed Layer Pyramid, nor do we have much idea about his foreign or domestic policies.

This is perhaps another reason that it is tempting to equate him with Huni. He was apparently never buried in the layer pyramid, and his body has never been identified. While we may never know much about this king, hopefully archaeologist will someday provide us with more information than is now currently available.

James Dunn


Title Author Date Publisher Reference Number
Atlas of Ancient Egypt Baines, John; Malek, Jaromir 1980 Les Livres De France None Stated
Chronicle of the Pharaohs (The Reign-By-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt) Clayton, Peter A. 1994 Thames and Hudson Ltd ISBN 0-500-05074-0
History of Ancient Egypt, A Grimal, Nicolas 1988 Blackwell None Stated
Monarchs of the Nile

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Imhotep Theory Of Relativity

He Comes In Peace (IMHOTEP)- is the name of the first recorded architect.

The earliest known roots of the scientific method trace as far back as Imhotep (c. 2600 BC), who is credited as the orginal author of the Edwin Smith papyrus; though this work is believed to be based on earlier material as early as circa 3000 BC.

The methods entailed in the Edwin Smith papyrus reflect the basic components of the scientific method: examination, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. A basic structure of the scientific method is also highlighted in the Ebers papyrus (c. 1550 BC); though this work is not considered as rational as the Edwin Smith papyrus, because its remedies rely heavily upon magic and superstition.

The development of the scientific method is inseparable from the history of science itself. Though earlier documents describe methods resembling that of the scientific method, it is not until ancient Greek culture that the first elements of the scientific method clearly become well established. Nevertheless, the ancient Greeks themselves are known to have studied in Egypt.

The earliest recorded scientific practices can be traced back to Egypt in North-East Africa. Isaac Asimov (a Russian-born American author) in his book Biographical Encyclopaedia of Science and Technology reports that science is a gift from "Ancient Africa" to the modern world.

Imhotep (an Egyptian priest) was the first recorded person to practice Medicine. The earlest scientific centre could possibly have been the Library of Alexandria in Egypt (North-East Africa), where many notable early scientists like Euclid and Heron of Alexandria came to study. The Greeks also practiced science in its early forms but the oldest trace of science still lies in Egypt.

The fundamental tenets of the scientific method at last crystallized no later than the rise of the modern physical sciences, in the 17th and 18th centuries. In his work Novum Organum--a reference to Aristotle's Organon--Francis Bacon outlined a new system of logic to improve upon the old philosophical process of syllogism. These writings are considered critical in the historical development of the scientific method.

General Relativity

Einstein's prediction (1907): Light bends in a gravitational field

Einstein's theory of General Relativity makes several specific predictions about the observable structure of space-time, such as a prediction that light bends in a gravitational field and that the amount of bending depends in a precise way on the strength of that gravitational field. Arthur Eddington's observations made during a 1919 solar eclipse supported General Relativity rather than Newtonian gravitation.

Early history of science

The Djoser funerary complex was meant to be a house for a god and a metaphor for the sky. Today, it is usually understood that this original work of classical architecture is a vacant house of stone "from which the gods have field."

This difference does not have to be understood as a further sign of an irrecoverable loss of meaning. It is a historical doubling of meaning, or a duplicity.

Monday, August 16, 2010

Herodotus on Sesostris

Who was this Sesostris, Senusret III (1878-1841 BCE) or Ramses II (1304-1237 BCE) ? According to Herodotus he followed Moiris, who is generally supposed to have been Amenemhet III (1841-1796 BCE). He may well be a compound of a number of conquering pharaohs and even then not all they are reported to have achieved, is true: The Red Sea region for instance was brought under Egyptian control only by the Ptolemies - two centuries after Herodotus.

Senusret II (1882-1878 BCE) conquered parts of northern Arabia. Senusret III fought the Libyans and invaded Syria. The empire of the Hyksos kings included Karkamesh (today southern Turkey), but many do not count them as proper Egyptian pharaohs, though they appear in the kings' lists. The Hyksos rule was ended by Ahmose I (1570-1546).

Thutmose III (1504-1450 BCE) extended Egyptian power into Canaan and Syria. Amenhotep II crossed the Euphrates but did not conquer further territories. His followers, among them Ramses II, did their best to defend these possessions. During the 20th Dynasty Egypt's influence in Retenu waned and its power declined sharply. In the Late Period Psammetic I undertook a campaign into Mesopotamia before the final collapse of Pharaonic Egypt.

Many pharaohs erected stelae (pillars) abroad.The stela of Seti I at Beit Shean (in modern Israel) is well known, as are the Buhen Stela in Nubia erected by Seti I in honour of his father Ramses I, and the Beit Shean Stela of Ramses II. But no sexual symbols have been found on any of them.

Therefore passing these by I will make mention of the king who came after these, whose name is Sesostris. He (the priests said) first of all set out with ships of war from the Arabian gulf and subdued those who dwelt by the shores of the Erythraian Sea, until as he sailed he came to a sea which could no further be navigated by reason of shoals: then secondly, after he had returned to Egypt, according to the report of the priests, he took a great army and marched over the continent, subduing every nation which stood in his way.

Those of them whom he found valiant and fighting desperately for their freedom, in their lands he set up pillars which told by inscriptions his own name and the name of his country, and how he had subdued them by his power; but as to those of whose cities he obtained possession without fighting or with ease, on their pillars he inscribed words after the same tenor as he did for the nations which had shown themselves courageous, and in addition he drew upon them the hidden parts of a woman, desiring to signify by this that the people were cowards and effeminate.

Thus doing he traversed the continent, until at last he passed over to Europe from Asia and subdued the Scythians and also the Thracians. These, I am of opinion, were the furthest people to which the Egyptian army came, for in their country the pillars are found to have been set up, but in the land beyond this they are no longer found.

From this point he turned and began to go back; and when he came to the river Phasis, what happened then I cannot say for certain, whether the king Sesostris himself divided off a certain portion of his army and left the men there as settlers in the land, or whether some of his soldiers were wearied by his distant marches and remained by the river Phasis.


For the people of Colchis are evidently Egyptian, and this I perceived for myself before I heard it from others. So when I had come to consider the matter I asked them both; and the Colchians had remembrance of the Egyptians more than the Egyptians of the Colchians; but the Egyptians said they believed that the Colchians were a portion of the army of Sesostris. That this was so I conjectured myself not only because they are dark-skinned and have curly hair (this of itself amounts to nothing, for there are other races which are so), but also still more because the Colchians, Egyptians, and Ethiopians alone of all the races of men have practiced circumcision from the beginning.


The Phenicians and the Syrians who dwell in Palestine confess themselves that they have learnt it from the Egyptians, and the Syrians about the river Thermodon and the river Parthenios, and the Macronians, who are their neighbors, say that they have learnt it lately from the Colchians. These are the only races of men who practise circumcision, and these evidently practise it in the same manner as the Egyptians.

Of the Egyptians themselves however and the Ethiopians, I am not able to say which learnt from the other, for undoubtedly it is a most ancient custom; but that the other nations learnt it by intercourse with the Egyptians, this among others is to me a strong proof, namely that those of the Phenicians who have intercourse with Hellas cease to follow the example of the Egyptians in this matter, and do not circumcise their children.

Now let me tell another thing about the Colchians to show how they resemble the Egyptians:--they alone work flax in the same fashion as the Egyptians, and the two nations are like one another in their whole manner of living and also in their language: now the linen of Colchis is called by the Hellenes Sardonic, whereas that from Egypt is called Egyptian.

The pillars which Sesostris king of Egypt set up in the various countries are for the most part no longer to be seen extant; but in Syria Palestine I myself saw them existing with the inscription upon them which I have mentioned and the emblem.

Moreover in Ionia there are two figures of this man carved upon rocks, one on the road by which one goes from the land of Ephesos to Phocaia, and the other on the road from Sardis to Smyrna. In each place there is a figure of a man cut in the rock, of four cubits and a span in height, holding in his right hand a spear and in his left a bow and arrows, and the other equipment which he has is similar to this, for it is both Egyptian and Ethiopian: and from the one shoulder to the other across the breast runs an inscription carved in sacred Egyptian characters, saying thus, "This land with my shoulders I won for myself."

But who he is and from whence, he does not declare in these places, though in other places he had declared this. Some of those who have seen these carvings conjecture that the figure is that of Memnon, but herein they are very far from the truth.

As this Egyptian Sesostris was returning and bringing back many men of the nations whose lands he had subdued, when he came (said the priests) to Daphnai in the district of Pelusion on his journey home, his brother to whom Sesostris had entrusted the charge of Egypt invited him and with him his sons to a feast; and then he piled the house round with brushwood and set it on fire.

And Sesostris when he discovered this forthwith took counsel with his wife, for he was bringing with him (they said) his wife also; and she counselled him to lay out upon the pyre two of his sons, which were six in number, and so to make a bridge over the burning mass, and that they passing over their bodies should thus escape. This, they said, Sesostris did, and two of his sons were burnt to death in this manner, but the rest got away safe with their father.

Then Sesostris, having returned to Egypt and having taken vengeance on his brother employed the multitude which he had brought in of those who whose lands he had subdued, as follows: --these were they drew the stones which in the reign of this king were brought to the temple of Hephaistos, being of very good size; and also these were compelled to dig all the channels which now are in Egypt; and thus (having no such purpose) they caused Egypt, which before was all fit for riding and driving, to be no longer fit for this from thenceforth: for from that time forward Egypt, though it is plain land, has become all unfit for riding and driving, and the cause has been these channels, which are many and run in all directions.

But the reason why the king cut up the land was this, namely because those of the Egyptians who had their cities not on the river but in the middle of the country, being in want of water when the river went down from them, found their drink brackish because they had it from wells. For this reason Egypt was cut up: and they said that this king distributed the land to all the Egyptians, giving an equal square portion to each man, and from this he made his revenue, having appointed them to pay a certain rent every year: and if the river should take away anything from any man's portion, he would come to the king and declare that which had happened, and the king used to send men to examine and to find out by measurement how much less the piece of land had become, in order that for the future the man might pay less, in proportion to the rent appointed: and I think that thus the art of geometry was found out and afterwards came into Hellas also.

For as touching the sun-dial and the gnomon and the twelve divisions of the day, they were learnt by the Hellenes from the Babylonians. He moreover alone of all the Egyptian kings had rule over Ethiopia; and he left as memorials of himself in front of the temple of Hephaistos two stone statues of thirty cubits each, representing himself and his wife, and others of twenty cubits each representing his four sons: and long afterwards the priest of Hephaistos refused to permit Dareios the Persian to set up a statue of himself in front of them, saying that deeds had not been done by him equal to those which were done by Sesostris the Egyptian.

Sesostris had subdued other nations besides, not fewer than he, and also the Scythians; but Dareios had not been able to conquer the Scythians: wherefore it was not just that he should set up a statue in front of those which Sesostris had dedicated, if he did not surpass him in his deeds. Which speech, they say, Dareios took in good part.

Friday, July 16, 2010

OSIRIS - Excerpts from the Book of the Dead


  Excerpts from the Book of the Dead :

Osiris, had well over 200 divine names, including Lord of Lords, King of Kings, God of Gods, Resurrection and the Life, Good Shepherd, Eternity and Everlastingness, the god who "made men and women to be born again."
    "In ancient Egypt there were originally several gods known by the name Horus, but the best known and most important from the beginning of the historic period was the son of Osiris and Isis who was identified with the king of Egypt. 

    According to myth, Osiris, who assumed the rulership of the earth shortly after its creation, was slain by his jealous brother, Seth. The sister- wife of Osiris, Isis, who collected the pieces of her dismembered husband and revived him, also conceived his son and avenger, Horus.

    Horus fought with Seth, and, despite the loss of one eye in the contest, was successful in avenging the death of his father and in becoming his legitimate successor. Osiris then became king of the dead and Horus king of the living, this transfer being renewed at every change of earthly rule.

    The myth of divine kingship probably elevated the position of the god as much as it did that of the king. In the fourth dynasty, the king, the living god, may have been one of the greatest gods as well, but by the fifth dynasty the supremacy of the cult of Re, the sun god, was accepted even by the kings. The Horus-king was now also "son of Re." 

    This was made possible mythologically by personifying the entire older genealogy of Horus (the Heliopolitan ennead) as the goddess Hathor, "house of Horus," who was also the spouse of Re and mother of Horus. 

    Mourners at the tomb of Re-Mose, who was a Vizier under Amenophis III.


    The ritual of the opening of the mouth done by a member of the family 70 days after death.

    • Had well over 200 divine names, including Lord of Lords, King of Kings, God of Gods, Resurrection and the Life, Good Shepherd, Eternity and Everlastingness, the god who "made men and women to be born again."
    • Was a devoured Host. His flesh was eaten in the form of communion cakes of wheat, the 'plant of Truth'.
    • The 23rd Psalm copied an Egyptian text appealing to Osiris the Good Shepherd to lead the deceased to the 'green pastures' and 'still waters' of the nefer-nefer land, to restore the soul and body, and to give protection in the valley of the shadow of death...
    • The Lord's Prayer was prefigured by an Egyptian hymn to Osiris-Amen beginning, 'O Amen, O Amen, who are in heaven. Amen was also invoked at the end of every prayer.  (This is why we end each prayer by saying
    • The teachings of Osiris and Jesus are wonderfully alike. Many passages are identically the same, word for word.
    • As the god of the vine, a great traveling teacher who civilized the world. Ruler and judge of the dead.
    • In his passion, Osiris was plotted against and killed by Set and "the 72."
    • Osiris' resurrection served to provide hope to all that they may do likewise and become eternal.

    "The repeated formula 'Rise up, you have not died,' whether applied to Osiris or a citizen of Egypt, signaled a new, permanent life in the realm of the dead."

    the origin of the savior god: osiris and egyptian religionAnswer for yourself: 

      the origin of the savior god: osiris and egyptian religionHow much of our traditional Christianity comes from Egypt and we not know it?


      The cult of Osiris contributed a number of ideas and phrases to the Bible.

      Jesus' words, found in John 12:24

      "Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone; but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit" 

      Were taken from an Osirian doctrine that a dying man is like a corn of wheat "which falls into the earth in order to draw from its bosom a new life."' Jesus' words, recorded in 


      John 14:2,

      "In my Father's house are many mansions" 

      Came from an Osirian text telling of numerous Arits ("Mansions") in the blessed land of Father Osiris. Stories about Osiris turned up in Christian legends. Jesus' healing of a nobleman's daughter was based on a tale of an Osirian priest who cured a princesses.

      Worshippers of Osiris were promised that they would rule the spirit-souls (angels) in heaven, foreshadowing St. Paul's promise to his followers that they would rule even angels (1 Corinthians 6:3).


      the origin of the savior god: osiris and egyptian religion There were several Osirian trinities. One consisted of Osiris the father, Isis the mother, and Horus the son.  

      Another was Ra the father, Osiris the son on earth, and Horus the son rising in heaven. Another was ( 1 ) Ptah, "Opener of the Way," a phallic consort of the Virgin and the opener of her matrix; (2) Seker, representing the male spent, dead, and hidden within the female tomb-womb; and (3) Osiris, newly incarnate as the Min-phallus and standing for resurrection

      The sacred lunar numbers seven, fourteen, and twenty-eight were prominent in Osiris' cult. The lunar cycle of twenty-eight days corresponded to his descent into the underworld and ascent to heaven: fourteen days each way, or fourteen steps on his mystic Ladder. 

      Buddha's ladder of descent to earth and return to heaven also had fourteen steps. Like Buddha and Osiris, the Tibetan sage is still supposed to pass fourteen days in the after-world before encountering enlightenment in the form of "the mandala of the animal-headed deities," reminiscent of the Egyptian gods.

      We are beginning to see how even Osiris influenced Buddhism. 

      Some of these deities were named Heruka, a possible cognate of Osiris the sun, Heru-Harakhti.

      the origin of the savior god: osiris and egyptian religionLike Hindu sacred dramas, the cycle of Osirian drama seems to have been keyed to the menstrual cycle of the Goddess, incarnate in the priestess who bore the title of Divine Mother. In the month of Athyr (Hathor), Egyptian women made clay phalli as images of Osiris and threw them into the  Nile when it "turned to blood" in flood time. 

      This custom recalled the Oriental conviction that the Goddess must be menstruating at the time of her sacred marriage to the dying god. Later accounts explained Osirian lunar numbers by saying he was 28 years old at the time of his passion, or else that it took place in the 28th year of his reign on earth.

      As Lord of Death, Osiris was sometimes identified with the Great Serpent of the underworld, and sometimes painted in the same serpentine form, bent around so his toes touched his head. In Ptolemaic times the whole underworld became Osiris's province, its seven halls collectively called the House of Osiris.

      the origin of the savior god: osiris and egyptian religionBetween 1450 and 1400 B.C.E. the Osirian mystery-cult took form, with hundreds of verbal formulae for making the worshipper become an Osiris. 

      He would be born of Isis and nursed by Nephthys. He would ride across the sky "side by side with the gods of the stars." He would be as virile as Osiris-Menu: "My palm tree (penis) standeth upright and is like Menu.... 

      Therefore the Phallus of Ra, which is the head of Osiris, shall not be swallowed up." When he was in heaven, the gods themselves would bring offerings to him.


      the origin of the savior god: osiris and egyptian religion
      The Osirian Mysteries taught words of power for bringing about these desirable effects. Such words of power were "keys" to heaven, to be concealed from non-initiates as "a great mystery." 

      The Saite Recension said with such keys, a soul could pass freely through the gates, gatekeepers, guardians, heralds, inspectors, and other spirits of the heavenly mansions, for he would know all their names.

      And the Majesty of Anpu shall say unto me, "Knowest thou the name of this door and canst thou tell it?" . . . And the Majesty of the god Anpu shall say unto me, "Knowest thou the name of the upper leaf, and the name of the lower leaf?" On receiving the proper answers, the Majesty of the god Anpu shall say, "Pass on, for thou host knowledge, O Osiris."


      the origin of the savior god: osiris and egyptian religion
      Important for our study into the similarities of Christianity is the fact that during the first century B.C. the Osirian religion was established in all parts of the Roman Empire. 

       Its popularity declined in the end because it became too complicated for the average mind. Necessary "words of power" developed into lengthy catechisms of divine names of doorposts, lintels, bolts, panels, doorkeepers, spirits of the hour, thresholds, gods' right and left feet, etc. 

      Egyptians invented even a memory-god to bring back the spells and holy names if they were stolen by a spirit of forgetfulness. The important ceremony of "Opening the Mouth" was performed to let the dead person speak charms and words of power freely. Still, the catechisms became too long and complex to be remembered.

      Osiris Book of the Dead:

      CHAPTER 167 - Formula to bring forth the sacred eye of Re by the soul of N.:

      The text that Kha-em-Ouast, (the son of Ramses II) found in a holy book, (west of Memphis), is more valuable than any vases of treasure. It had been made in the portal of fire.
      The Book of 'The One whose nature is mysterious(!)', found by Amenhotep son of Hapou, gave protection to all his family…
      • O (Amon), the bull of fire, who makes the stones explode with his fiery breath; the god whose shape is hidden, whose image is secret, the one in the Douat who conceals mysteries and controls the entire earth, there is nothing that exists without your knowledge. I am one of your descendents………..
      • O, One whose eye is a flame which protects him against the gods; he hides during the day from his enemies in his great disk of fire. Great Soul, the god of the rising of the sun, resplendent, your two sacred eyes are the mysterious solar disk, which is transformed on the horizon of the sky, ruling it for ever.

      CHAPTER 168 - Worship of Osiris by the soul of Osiris N:
      • Rise up Osiris, soul of Re that gave back your form,
      • Rise up, those in the sanctuary, Re will lead you toward your boat.
      • Rise up Osiris, whose heart beats no more, and who praises Re.
      • Rise up Amon, whose body is hidden, (the eldest son of Re).
      • Rise up Osiris! Re offers you his hands and Ptah protects you.
      • Rise up Osiris, your two sisters Isis and Nephtys prostrate themselves before you.
      • Rise up, the one whose mysteries are hidden; who illuminates the Douat with the light of his eyes.
      • Rise up Orion, master of life! Your son Horus gives you his scepter Djam.
      • Rise up child Khepri, the offspring of Nout and Re.
      • Rise up Thou rich in adornments! Temples contain your hidden picture.
      • Rise up eldest of elders, the great, victorious Osiris! Maat is with you; Isis is your protection.
      • Rise up, god of many forms! The earth has your image and your mummy, and the sky is filled with your divine soul-star.
      • Rise up, O Eternal One who surrounds the earth…… All beings are cradled in your arms…

      CHAPTER 170 - The words to say to salute the soul of Osiris N.:
      Thot himself comes to you bearing the Book of holy words; he raises his hand towards the horizon, towards the place that your Ka desires. He did this for Osiris on the night that he departed his life.
      • Ah! Osiris N., Atoum, the father of the gods has been established firmly for all eternity.
      • Ah! Osiris N. you are a god who was undergone many transformations; your form is perfect, (more so than that of the gods). Your radiance is greater than that of those in bliss; your power is greater than that of the dead.
      • Ah Osiris N., 'Ptah-who is above-the-wall' raises you to a place higher than that of the gods.
      • Ah! Osiris N., you are Horus, the son of Osiris, who gave birth to Ptah, who was created by Nout.
      • You shine like Re on the horizon when he lights up the two countries of his beauty. All the gods say "Welcome, come see your spiritual wealth in the land of eternity ".
      • (Osiris N.) I am the heir to the heavens, the companion of He who created light.

      CHAPTER 172 - The way to transfiguration in the empire of the dead:

      I am pure, and pure are the works of praise which come forth from my mouth.
      The soul of Osiris N. is very beautiful. Ptah and all the gods praise him, and each goddess says:
      • your beauty is like the pillar of Ptah in its perfection.
      • Ah, yes, you have been put down! You put on the garment and took off the garment. You were one of the objects of the fishing and hunting parties at the Great Castle. When you mounted upon ORION, Nout welcomed you into his arms.
      ORION, (The son of Re), and Nout (who brought the gods into the world) speak thus to one another.
      • On the great day when he will be glorified, N. will be on the lips of all children. Rise up, N. and hear your praises

      CHAPTER 173 - Horus salutes his father Osiris. Many praises to Osiris by N.
      • I adore you, lord of the gods. The one and only God, who lives in the truth; this is your son Horus.
      • I bring true sayings to your Ennead, so that I may be among your true devotees.
      • Osiris, I am your son, come to glorify your soul, and to give you even more power.

      Extracts from the Book of the Dead - additionnal chapters
      CHAPTER 174 - The words to allow the spirit of Akh to leave the great door of the heavens:

      The words of Anubis: Oh, One and Only true God, who has no equal; whose sacred eyes let you see all, and whose ears hear everything, express the symbols of life-force, as did Nefertoum. You, who knows the thoughts of the unhappy men in his heart and responds to their call, (as in the chapel at Karrak, where he was called "He who replies to the unfortunate."

        CHAPTER 175 - Words to ensure one does not die again

        Words of Osiris N.:Oh, Atoum, why must I go into the desert, and live without water or air? It is so dark there and seems endless; (Periods of disorder at Herackeopolis). Atoum replies:

        You shall live there in bliss; there one lives in glory and has no need of water, air, bread nor beer.I will see the face of the Master of all; but how long will my life last there?Your life will be millions of years long and this land will return to the state of Noun, to the floods which were there at the beginning. I shall destroy everything I have created.

        When I am transformed again into a snake, (which men cannot see), I shall stay beside Osiris. I have performed many beautiful acts for Osiris, more than for any other God. I gave him the desert region of the necropoli. I prepared his place in the "barque of the people", and I made his son Horus the heir to throne in the island of flames.- But will the soul of his wicked brother, Seth, (the symbol of evil), be sent to the West, unlike all the other gods? Atoum replies " :

        I have arranged for his soul to remain a prisoner in his barque, so that the divine body will be protected"  The sound of praise spreads out over Herackeopolis.Osiris appears as Re, (having inherited the throne). Osiris says to Atoum:   Oh, Lord of All, let the people, the blessed and the dead come to me, after you have given them fear and respect for my prestige, and let them fear Seth no more.

        "You have done very well, better than any other. Osiris replies:I have done it by means of the WORDS that came from my mouth.
        Extracts from the Book of the Dead - additionnal chapters

        CHAPTER 180 - Formula to restore souls to life :

        Words said by N.:
        "Oh Re who lives in Osiris" in all his glorious manifestations of the blissful gods of the west. The one form of the mystery of the Douat, the holy soul of the west.

        Your face is serene, Oh indweller of the Douat!

        Your son Horus is content with you and you have made him appear in glory to the inhabitants of the Douat as a great star, which belongs to the Douat and passes into the son of Re, the descendent of Atoum.

        Mourners scream for you, they hit their hands and moan, but you, your soul exults and your body is glorious…

        Oh Osiris, you made me appear as a great star that brings all its wealth to the Douat. I have power over the darkness and I enter there, and leave. I have strengthened the scepter-djam of Orion and the headpiece of The One whose name is secret.

        I am the heir of Osiris who received his headpiece in the Douat. I am the successor of Re, and I am the mysterious pheonix. I am the one that travels the lower sky, following Re. I judge like Thot, I go with my heart filled with the dignity of 'The One whose possessions are Secret' in my appearances as the double god.

        CHAPTER 181 - Formula to enter into the divine assembly of Osiris:
        Words said by the soul of N. : I salute you Osiris, who presides over the west; you appeared in glory as Re. He came to see you, being delighted with your beauty,:
        • his solar disk is YOUR solar disk,
        • his rays are your rays,
        • his forms are your forms
        • his beauty is your beauty;
        • his knowledge is your knowledge

        - I greet you Osiris, son of Nout, for whom Atoum created prestige in the hearts of men, of gods, of the blessed, and to whom has been given the scepter of Heliopolis and many transformations.

        You are the possessor of great renown in the divine palace at Abydos, striking fear throughout the earth. Prince of the gods of the Douat, governor of the living, king of the dead, whom thousands (of souls) glorify at Kher-aha.

        Your sisters Ises and Nephthys come to you to fill your heart. With love for you they will enclose everything in their arms and reunite for you all the gods and the kas. They will adore you eternally...

        Extracts from the Book of the Dead - additionnal chapters
        CHAPTER 182 - Formula to make the heart beat, that beats no more:
        I am Thot, the excellent scribe with unblemished hands, the one that chases away pain and writes only the truth; I protect the Master of the universe.

        I am in charge of the laws which were written to govern the two banks (of the Nile)… I am Lord of precision, the impartial witness of gods, who gives importance to the word so that it is venerated.

        I proclaim just the voice which is silenced. I make Re rest in Osiris, and Osiris in Re…I am Thot, the one who announces the dawn, who has a perfect vision of the future.

        I am Thot, who directs the sky, the earth and the Douat, and created human life.
        I salute you, chief of the gods of the West, who redirects human beings back into the world, and they return rejuvenated.

        They are more beautiful than before…
        After being justified by Osiris N. : you are living, renewed, rejuvenated, just as is Re every day!

        CHAPTER 183 - Homage of Osiris N. to the great Osiris :
        He says: I come to you, Osiris, son of Nout, who governs over eternity. I am the descendent of Thot, who brought you soft breezes, life and lets your beautiful face prevail. The north wind comes to you from Atoum, O Master of the sacred Country. He made the solar light shine on you and it has illumined for you the path of darkness.
        Oh Osiris, your son Horus was proclaimed just before the Ennead, earthly royalty was given to him, and his ureus, was the entire earth.
        The throne of Geb was assigned to him and the exalted duty of Atoum was written on a block of quartzite, according to the order of your father Ptah-Tatenen, who is on the great throne…
        Happy are those who respect the God (Osiris) who is at Abydos, in the original nome.
        I come to you, my hands bearing the truth, with a heart empty of lies and falsehood. I come before Maat because I know that I did not commit any injustices in this land, I have not injured anyone.
        I am Thot, the Master of exactitude, who asserts the rights of those whose voice has been silenced. I am the protector of the weak and of those who suffer.

        CHAPTER 192 - All Glory to Osiris :

        Oh Osiris N. , alive again; rejuvenated, there is nothing amiss where ever you go… You come with the day, you love the light and god comes to rest where you are.

        The Dual doors of the other world are open for you; the doors of the Hidden Kingdom are broken down for you. The doormen rejoice at your coming and say:

        Enter, well favored one, and leave here well beloved… The blameless glorify you and those who are in the kingdom accompany you, Oh Osiris that rules over the west, Osiris N.,

          HOTEP SANKOFA*






            Sunday, July 4, 2010

            Characteristics Of HORUS And JESUS

            On the banks of the river Nile are observed the ruins of the temple of Philae, which structure, it is said, represents the most ancient style of architecture.

            Within these ruins is to be seen an inner chamber in which are depicted the birth scenes of the child god Horus, and, indeed, everywhere among the monuments and ruins of Egypt, is plainly visible the fact that the creative power and functions in human beings, in animals, and in vegetable life, together with Wisdom, once constituted the god-idea.

            The Goddess Disa or Isa of the North, as delineated on the sacred drums of the Laplanders, was accompanied by a child similar to the Horus of the Egyptians.[29] It is observed also that the ancient Muscovites worshipped a sacred group composed of a mother and her children, probably a representation of the Egyptian Isis and her offspring, or at least of the once universal idea of the Deity.

            If you are thinking that it means Horus was killed by crucifixion, being thrown down to the ground and nailed to a cross, then the claim is wrong. But if you understand that "crucify" can simply mean "to affix to a cross," then the claim is correct, because Horus was both associated with and identified as a cross in ancient times.

            He was also placed on the cross of the vernal equinox, between two "thieves," no less.
            That would make his story even more like that of Jesus Christ, who purportedly lived after these myths were created. 

            The cross was a very popular symbol long before the Christian era and that Horus was one of many pre-Christian gods and goddesses who are depicted on a cross or in cruciform. These facts mean that Jesus Christ''s placement on the cross is not unique in religious and mythological iconography.

            The Cross in Egypt ? The Ankh ?

            Was a very sacred symbol of eternal life that can be found on countless artifacts.
            The Egyptians were a very religious people, and they took their faith as seriously as people do today.

            Jesus was referred to as the chief cornerstone (i.e., capstone) - a reference to an Egyptian pyramid. The chief cornerstone of the pyramid is same symbol for Horus, the Egyptian god and savior. Like the Egyptian pharoah, Jesus was called a shepherd who rules the nations with a staff.

            Horus was a popular Egyptian god who was the son of Osiris and Isis. Osiris and Horus were both solar deities. Osiris was the setting sun, Horus the rising sun. Jesus is the rising Son and the morning star. The pharoah was considered to be an incarnation of Horus (also known as "Amen-Ra," the sun god).

            In the same way, Jesus is considered to be the incarnation of his heavenly Father. Horus was the lamb of God who took away the sins of the world. Horus had an adversary named "Set". Jesus' adversary was "Satan".

            The story of Horus can be found in "The Egyptian Book of the Dead (also known as the "Papyrus of Ani") written over 3,000 years before the birth of Christ.

            It is written that both Horus and Jesus existed before their incarnations. 
            Horus was born of the virgin Isis on December 25th in a cave/manger
            Horus' birth was announced by a star in the East and attended by three wise men. 

            The infant Horus was carried out of Egypt to escape the wrath of Typhon/Seth. The infant Jesus was carried into Egypt to escape the wrath of Herod. Concerning the infant Jesus, the New Testament states the following prophecy: "Out of Egypt have I called my son." (Matt. 2:15)

            Horus's personal epithet was "Iusa," the "ever-becoming son" of "Ptah," the "Father." 

            The adoration of the Virgin and Child is connected with both the adoration of Isis and the infant Horus and the adoration of Mary and infant Jesus. In the catacombs at Rome are pictures of the baby Horus being held by the virgin mother Isis, the original "Madonna and Child."

            Concerning the writing of the Gnostics, C. W. King, a noted English author, says: "To this period belongs a beautiful sard in my collection, representing Serapis,...whilst before him stands Isis, holding in one hand the sistrum, in the other a wheatsheaf, with the legend: 'Immaculate is our lady Isis,' the very term applied afterwards to that personage who succeeded to her form, her symbols, rites, and ceremonies" (Gnostics and Their Remains, p. 71).

            Osiris, Isis, and Horus are the principal trinity of the Egyptian religions.

            God the Father, Jesus the Son, and the Holy Spirit is the Christian trinity.

            Dr. Inman affirms the Egyptian roots of the Christian trinity "The Christian trinity is of Egyptian origin, and is as surely a pagan doctrine as the belief in heaven and hell, the existence of a devil, of archangels, angels, spirits and saints, martyrs and virgins, intercessors in heaven, gods and demigods, and other forms of faith which deface the greater part of modern religions" (Ancient Pagan and Modem Christian Symbolism, p. 13).

            Dr. Draper says: "For thirty centuries the Egyptians had been familiar with the conception of a triune God. There was hardly a city of any note without its particular triads. Here it was Amum, Maut, and Khonso; there Osiris, Isis, and Horus" (Intellectual Development, Vol. I, p. 191).

            Dr. Draper stated: "Views of the Trinity, in accordance with Egyptian tradition, were established. Not only was the adoration of Isis under a new name restored, but even her image standing on the crescent moon reappeared. The well-known effigy of that goddess, with the infant Horus in her arms, has descended to our days in the beautiful artistic creations of the Madonna and Child." (Conflict, p. 48).

            There are two stories connected with Horus that is analogous to stories found in the Old Testament. The hiding of the infant Horus in a marsh by his mother undoubtedly parallels the story of the hiding of the infant Moses in a marsh by his mother. 

            When Horus died, Isis implored Ra, the sun, to restore him to life. Ra stopped his ship in mid-heaven and sent down Thoth, the moon, to bring him back to life. The stopping of the sun and moon by Isis recalls the myth of the stopping of the sun and moon by Joshua.

            "Osiris, I am your son, come to glorify your soul, and to give you even more power." 
            - Horus, (Book of the Dead, Ch. 173)

            "Now is the Son of Man glorified and God is glorified in him. If God is glorified in him, God will glorify the Son in himself, and will glorify him at once." 
            - Jesus, (John 13:31-32)


            Comparison of some life events of Horus and Jesus:



            Event Horus Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
            Conception: By a virgin. Isis By a virgin. 3
            Father: Only begotten son of the God Osiris. Only begotten son of Yehovah (in the form of the Holy Spirit).
            Mother: Isis-Meri. 4 Miriam (now often referred to as Mary).
            Foster father: Seb, (a.k.a. Jo-Seph). 4 Joseph.
            Foster father's ancestry: Of royal descent. Of royal descent.
            Birth location: In a cave. In a cave or stable.
            Annunciation: By an angel to Isis, his mother. By an angel to Miriam, his mother. 3
            Birth heralded by: The star Sirius, the morning star. An unidentified "star in the East."
            Birth date: Ancient Egyptians paraded a manger and child representing Horus through the streets at the time of the winter solstice (about DEC-21). Born during the fall. However, his birth date is now celebrated on DEC-25. The date was chosen to occur on the same date as the birth of Mithra, Dionysus and the Sol Invictus (unconquerable Sun), etc.
            Birth announcement: By angels. By angels. 3
            Birth witnesses: Shepherds. Shepherds. 3
            Later witnesses to birth: Three solar deities. An unknown number of wise men. 3 They are said to have brought three gifts; thus the legend grew that there were three men.
            Death threat during infancy: Herut tried to have Horus murdered. Herod tried to have Jesus murdered.
            Handling the threat: The God That tells Horus' mother "Come, thou goddess Isis, hide thyself with thy child." An angel tells Jesus' father to: "Arise and take the young child and his mother and flee into Egypt."
            Rite of passage ritual: Horus came of age with a special ritual, when his eye was restored. Taken by parents to the temple for what is today called a bar mitzvah ritual.
            Age at the ritual: 12 12
            Break in life history: No data between ages of 12 & 30. No data between ages of 12 & 30.
            Baptism location: In the river Eridanus. In the river Jordan.
            Age at baptism: 30. 30.
            Baptized by: Anup the Baptiser. John the Baptist, a.k.a. John the Baptist.
            Subsequent fate of the baptiser: Beheaded. Beheaded.

            Comparison of some additional life events of Horus and Jesus:



            Event Horus Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
            Temptation: Taken from the desert of Amenta up a high mountain by his arch-rival Sut. Sut (a.k.a. Set) was a precursor for the Hebrew Satan. Taken from the desert in Palestine up a high mountain by his arch-rival Satan.
            Result of temptation: Horus resists temptation. Jesus resists temptation.
            Close followers: Twelve disciples. There is some doubt about this matter as well. Twelve disciples.
            Activities: Walked on water, cast out demons, healed the sick, restored sight to the blind. He "stilled the sea by his power." Walked on water, cast out demons, healed the sick, restored sight to the blind. He ordered the sea with a "Peace, be still" command.
            Raising of the dead: Horus raised Osirus, his dead father, from the grave. 1 Jesus raised Lazarus, his close friend, from the grave.
            Location where the resurrection miracle occurred: Anu, an Egyptian city where the rites of the death, burial and resurrection of Horus were enacted annually. 1 Hebrews added their prefix for house ('beth") to "Anu" to produce "Beth-Anu" or the "House of Anu." Since "u" and "y" were interchangeable in antiquity, "Bethanu" became "Bethany," the location mentioned in John 11.
            Linkage between the name of Osirus in Egyptian religion and Lazarus in the Gospel of John: Asar was an alternative name for Osirus, Horus' father. Horus raised Asar from the dead. He was referred to as "the Asar," as a sign of respect. Translated into Hebrew, Asr is "El-Asar." The Romans added the prefix "us" to indicate a male name, producing "Elasarus." Over time, the "E" was dropped and "s" became "z," producing "Lazarus." 1 Jesus is said to have raised his friend Lazarus from the dead.
            Transfigured: On a mountain. On a high mountain.
            Key address(es): Sermon on the Mount. Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5 to 7); Sermon on the Plain (Luke 6:17-49).
            Method of death By crucifixion or by the sting of a scorpion; sources differ. 2 See note above. By crucifixion.
            Accompanied by: Two thieves. Two thieves.
            Burial In a tomb. In a tomb.
            Fate after death: Descended into Hell; resurrected after three days. Descended into Hell; resurrected after about 30 to 38 hours (Friday PM to presumably some time in Sunday AM) covering parts of three days.
            Resurrection announced by: Women. Women.
            Future: To reign for 1,000 years in the Millennium. To reign for 1,000 years in the Millennium.

            Comparison of some characteristics of Horus and Jesus:


            Characteristics Horus Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
            Nature: Regarded as a mythical character. Regarded as a 1st century CE human prophet by Jewish Christians. Viewed as a man-god in the Gospel of John, and by Christians in the 2nd century CE and later.
            Main role: Savior of humanity. Savior of humanity.
            Status: God-man. God-man.
            Common portrayal: Virgin Isis holding the infant Horus. Virgin Mary holding the infant Jesus.
            Title: KRST, the anointed one. Christ, the anointed one.
            Other names: The good shepherd, the lamb of God, the bread of life, the son of man, the Word, the fisher, the winnower. The good shepherd, the lamb of God, the bread of life, the son of man, the Word, the fisher, the winnower.
            Zodiac sign: Associated with Pisces, the fish. Associated with Pisces, the fish.
            Main symbols: Fish, beetle, the vine, shepherd's crook. Fish, beetle, the vine, the shepherd's crook.

            Comparison of some teachings of Horus and Jesus:


            Characteristics Horus Yeshua of Nazareth, a.k.a. Jesus
            Criteria for salvation at the time of judgment
            "I have given bread to the hungry man and water to the thirsty man and clothing to the naked person and a boat to the shipwrecked mariner." 3
            "For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: Naked, and ye clothed me..." Matthew 25:35-36 (KJV).
            "I am" statements
            bullet"I am Horus in glory...I am the Lord of Light...I am the victorious one...I am the heir of endless time...I, even I, am he that knoweth the paths of heaven." 4
            bullet"I am Horus, the Prince of Eternity."
            bullet"I am Horus who stepeth onward through eternity...Eternity and everlastingness is my name."
            bullet"I am the possessor of bread in Anu. I have bread in heaven with Ra."
            bullet"I am the light of the world....I am the way, the truth and the life."
            bullet"Before Abraham was, I am"
            bullet"Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and today and forever."
            bullet"I am the living bread that came down from heaven."
            (All from the Gospel of John)

            •  Jesus was symbolized by a ( bird)  - The Dove.
            • Haru was symbolized by a (bird)   -  The Falcon.

            Aset (Isis) and her sister Nephthys searched for The Pisces to Asaru's (Osiris') body which Sutukh had chopped into 14 pieces and threw in the Nile.

            Aset with her magic along with the neteru Anubu (Anubis) Resurrected Asaru (Osiris).

            This is directly related to Mary Magdalene and her sister who searched for the body of Jesus only to find, according to the recording, he had resurrected. (Mathew 28, Mark 16, Luke 24).

            As stated before, the concept surrounding "The Birth Of Jesus" is an Egyptian (KMT) concept. To clarify, The Jesus of the Bible, came from the Egyptian Haru (Horus). Thus, Christianity came from various stories from Egypt.

            The birth place of the Egyptian Messiah at the Vernal Equinox was figured in "Apt", or "Apta", which means - "The Corner" or Apt" which is  said to be the name of the Great Mother; Apta is also the name of the "Crib", and "Manger", or "Womb".

            Where the child was said to be born in a Manger, It is the hieroglyphic sign of the "Solar Birth Place".
            Thus the Kemetians, exhibited  the baby in the crib through the streets of Alexandria.The birthplace was  indicated by The Great Circle in the Celestial Sphere, the Equinox.

            As it passed from sign to sign , it was pointed out by the star from the east. When the birth place was in the sign of the bull, Orion was the star that rose in the east. To show where the young sun-god was re-born.



            Hence it is called "The Star of Horus." That was then the star that greeted the three (3) Kings ,it is still the name of the three (3) stars in Orion's Belt.
            Here we learn the legend of the three (3) King's, is at least 6000 years old.

            SUN WORSHIP 

            Female and Male Energies in the Sun.

            • Taperet praying to the sun at its zenith, and also to the setting sun
            • Akhenaten and Nefertiti worshipping Aten the sun god Aten
            • Aten 
            • Akhenaten and Nefertiti

            Gilgamesh is awesome to perfection.
            It was he who opened the mountain passes,
            who dug wells on the flank of the mountain.
            It was he who crossed the ocean, the vast seas, to the rising sun,
            who explored the world regions, seeking life.
            From The Epic of Gilgamesh

            "Oh Sun, thou hast made the heavens that thou may rise therein..."

            - Akhenaten's Hymn

            The term "Sun Worship" is an ignorant and short-sighted term the European Egyptologists use for the reverence of the Invisible God - in which the sun was his major celestial representation.

            The most renowned writers who have dealt with this subject agree in the conclusion that, during thousands of years among all the nations of the earth, only one God was worshipped. This God was Light and Life, both of which proceeded from the sun, or more properly speaking were symbolized by the sun.

            In Egyptian hymns the Creator is invoked as the being who "dwells concealed in the sun"; and Greek writers speak of this luminary as the "generator and nourisher of all things, the ruler of the world." It is thought, however, that neither of these nations worshipped the corporeal sun.

            It was the "centre or body from which the pervading spirit, the original producer of order, fertility, and organization, continued to emanate to preserve the mighty structure which it had formed."
            It is evident that at an early age, both in Egypt and in India, spiritualized conceptions of sun-worship had already been formed.

            In the Egyptian as in the Indian and Hebrew religions, the two generating principles throughout Nature represent the Infinite, the Holy of Holies, the Elohim or Aleim--the Ieue.

            Within the records of the earliest religions of Ethiopia or Arabia, Chaldea, Assyria, and Babylonia, is revealed the same monad principle in the Deity. This monad conception, or dual unity, this God of Light and Life, or of Wisdom and generative force, is the same source whence all mythologies have sprung, and, as has been stated, among all peoples the fact is observed that the religious idea has followed substantially the same course of development, or growth.

            Within the sacred writings of the Hindoos there is but one Almighty Power, usually denominated as Brahm or Brahme-- Om or Aum. This word in India was regarded with the same degree of veneration as was the sacred Ieue of the Jews.

            In later ages, the fact is being proved that this God, into whom all the deities worshipped at a certain period in human history resolve themselves, is the sun, or if not the actual corporeal sun, then the supreme agency within it which was acknowledged as the great creative or life-force-- that dual principle which by the early races was recognized as Elohim, Om, Ormuzd, etc., and from which the productive power in human beings, in plants, and in animals was thought to emanate.

            Originally in Chaldea and in Egypt, only one supreme God was worshipped. This Deity was figured by a mother and her child, as was the great Chinese God. It comprehended the universe and all the attributes of the Deity.

            It was worshipped thousands of years prior to the birth of Mary, the Mother of Christ, and representations of it are still extant, not only in oriental lands, but in many countries of Europe.

            Within the oldest temples of Egypt are still to be observed sacred apartments which contain the "Holy of Holies," and to which, in past ages, none might gain access but priests and priestesses of the highest order. Within these apartments are pictured the mysteries of birth, together with the symbols of generation emblems of procreation.

            Emerald Tablet, The--as related to Alchemy

            • True, without deceit, certain and most true.
            • What is above, is like what is below, and what is above is like that which is below, for the performing of marvels of the one thing.
            • And as all things were from one thing, by the mediation of one thing: so all things are born of this one thing, by adaptation.
            • Its father is the Sun, its mother is the Moon; the wind carried it in its belly; its nurse is the Earth.
            • This is the father of all perfection of the whole world.
            • Its power is integral, if it be turned into earth.
            • You shall separate the earth from the fire, the subtle from the gross, smoothly and with cleverness.
            • It ascends from the earth into the heaven, and again descends into the earth and receives the power of the superiors and inferiors. So thus you will have the glory of the whole world. So shall all obscurity flee from thee.
            • This is the strong fortitude of all fortitude: because it will overcome every subtle thing and penetrate every solid.
            • Thus was the earth created.
            • Hence will there be marvelous adaptations, of which this is the means.
            • And so I am called Hermes Trismegistus, ( Tehuti - Thoth) having three parts of the Philosophy of the whole world.
            • What I have said concerning the operation of the Sun is finished.

            The ancient Egyptians regarded Thoth as One, self-begotten, and self-produced. He was the master of both physical and moral (i.e. Divine) law, making proper use of Ma'at.

            He is credited with making the calculations for the establishment of the heavens, stars, Earth, and everything in them. Compare this to how his feminine counterpart, Ma'at was the force which maintained the Universe.

            He is said to direct the motions of the heavenly bodies. Without his words, the Egyptians believed, the gods would not exist.

            His power was almost unlimited in the Underworld and rivaled that of Ra and Osiris.
            The Egyptians credited him as the author of all works of science, religion, philosophy, and magic.

            The Greeks further declared him the inventor of astronomy, astrology, the science of numbers, mathematics, geometry, land surveying, medicine, botany, theology, civilized government, the alphabet, reading, writing, and oratory. They further claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge, human and divine.


            The mother of Gotama Buddha was called Mai or Maya, after the month in which the Earth is arrayed in her most beautiful attire.Maya is the parent of universal Nature.

            According to Davis, the mother of Mercury "is the universal genius of Nature which discriminated all things according to their various kinds of species," the same as was Muth of Egypt. Mai is said to mean "one who begins to illuminate." She was in fact the mother of the sun whence everything proceeds. She was matter, within which was concealed spirit.

            In the representations of Montfaucon appears the Goddess Isis sitting on the lotus. Her head, upon which is a globe, is surrounded by a radiant circle which evidently represents the sun. On the reverse side is Ieu, the word "which is the usual way of the ecclesiastical authors reading the Hebrew word Jehovah."

            Referring to this from Montfaucon, Godfrey Higgins observes: "Here Isis, whose veil no mortal shall ever draw aside, the celestial Virgin of the Sphere, is seated on the self-generating sacred lotus and is called Ieu or Jove."[32] She has also the mystic number 608 which stands for the Deity.

            Her breasts show plainly that it is a female representation, although connected with the figure appears the male emblem to indicate that within her are contained both elements, or that the universe is embodied within the female.

            Higgins thinks there is no subject on which more mistakes have been made than on that of the Goddess Isis, both by ancients and moderns. He calls attention to the inconsistency of calling her the moon when in many countries the moon is masculine. He is quite positive that if Isis is the moon, Ceres, Proserpine, Venus, and all the other female gods were the same, which in view of the facts everywhere at hand cannot be true.

            It is true, however, that "the planet called the moon was dedicated to her in judicial astrology, the same as a planet was dedicated to Venus or Mars. But Venus and Mars were not these planets themselves, though these planets were sacred to them.

            "Higgins then calls attention to her temple at Sais in Egypt, and to the inscription which declares that "she comprehends all that is and was and is to be," that she is "parent of the sun," and he justly concludes that Isis can not be the moon.

            [33] Anacalypsis, book vi., ch. ii.

            Isis, we are told, is called Myrionymus, or goddess with 10,000 names. 

            She is the Persian Mithra, which is the same as Buddha, Minerva, Venus, and all the rest.
            Faber admits that the female principle was formerly regarded as the Soul of the World.

            He says: "Isis was the same as Neith or Minerva; hence the inscription at Sais was likewise applied to that goddess. Athenagoras informs us that Neith or the Athene of the Greeks was supposed to be Wisdom passing and diffusing itself through all things. Hence it is manifest that she was thought to be the Soul of the World; for such is precisely the character sustained by that mythological personage."

            Perhaps the most widely diffused and universally adored representation of the ancient female Deity in Egypt was the Virgin Neit or Neith, the Athene of the Greeks and the Minerva of the Romans. Her name signifies "I came from myself."

            This Deity represents not only creative power, but abstract intelligence, Wisdom or Light. Her temple at Sais was the largest in Egypt. It was open at the top and bore the following inscription: "I am all that was and is and is to be; no mortal has lifted up my veil, and the fruit which I brought forth was the sun." She was called also Muth, the universal mother. Kings were especially honored in the title "Son of Neith."