Positive Progress Through The Benevolent Use Of Knowledge

Monday, May 9, 2011


One of Egypt’s forgotten pharaohs. The tomb of Psusennes I was found intact by Pierre Montet in 1940. The pharaoh’s mummy was encased in an extraordinary silver casket, unique in the history of Ancient Egypt. However, the discovery was overshadowed by World War II.

Psusennes I

Who was this little-known king?

Now historians take a fresh look at Psusennes’s remains in a bid to learn more about this powerful ruler and shed light on a murky period of Egyptian history.

The royal tomb of Pharaoh Psusennes I is said to be one of the most spectacular discoveries ever made in Egypt. So, why hasn't the world heard about it? And what does it reveal about Ancient Egypt? Find out in 'Secrets of the Dead: The Silver Pharoah'.

Tanis, Egypt, circa 1939. An excavation team led by French archaeologist Pierre Montet unearthed an intact royal burial chamber (NRT III), which contained treasures that (almost) rivals the riches found in Tutankhamun’s tomb almost two decades before.

One of the most spectacular discoveries inside the crypt was the exquisite silver sarcophagus of Pharaoh Psusennes I, an, up till now, obscure ruler who governed Egypt more than 3000 years ago during one of its most difficult periods.

Psusennes actually moved a whole city piece by piece, he made this decision to make the city come alive. Pi-Ramesses became unlivable when the Nile became too silted at this location.

Around the same time, Psusennes took the throne – and ordered part of the city be moved stone by stone to Tanis. Moving the city insured his ticket to eternity.
The intermediate period is considered to be the dark age of Kmt's history.


Silver bones of the Gods

Silver was scarce in Kmt, and precious in earlier dynasties.

Egypt was the home of Free Masonry and Sacred Geometry. They may have taught it to the Sumerians.

Fascinated by Psusenes' portrait:

Secrets of the Dead: The Silver Pharaoh

Psusennes ruled at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, about 300 years after King Tut.

At that time, Egypt was a fractured kingdom divided between rival rulers of north and south. High priests seized power to command the southern region from Thebes while deposed pharaohs were exiled north to Tanis.

From Tanis, Psusennes ruled for an impressive 46 years;, around 1000 B.C. the study of Psusennes’ skeleton showed a hard-working man who suffered a debilitating rheumatic disease but lived well into his eighties.

'Cumul des mandats'

The pharaoh's cartouche offered the archaeologists clues as to how Psusennes amassed his fortune.

The first one was found on an ordinary silver dish, marked with Psusennes’ signature along with a series of hieroglyphic inscriptions citing his titles – the king was not only a pharaoh but also a high priest.

Additional investigation showed that he had his daughter marry his brother, a high priest in the south. In doing so, he cemented his family power and united the country.

Ursurping Merenptah's Sarcophagus

Psusennes' sarcophagus held another clue to Third Intermediate Period Egyptian politics. On it, the egyptologists found a cartouche belonging to Merenptah, son of Ramesses the Great. Merenptah died 150 years before Psusennes came into power.

Research showed Psusennes was given Merenptah’s sarcophagus as a gift and had his signature added on it. This strategic act solidified his family’s association with historical greats for eternity

Over time, the Libyans power had grown such that soon after the death of Pharaoh Ramesses III, some of his successors were apparently compelled to share power with a Libyan general named Sheshong, who apparently was Lord of Bubastis and also titled Great Chief of Meshwesh.

He seems to have been related by marriage to the Ramesside dynasty (either his grandmother was also mother of a king, or his aunt had married a king).


Moving Pi-Ramesses to Tanis

The team also discovered more about the relocation of the metropolis of Pi-Ramesses, the riverside capital built by Ramesses II, to Tanis. Montet discovered its ruins in Tanis, however, archaeologists began questioning Montet’s assumption since the river Nile often changed course.

Using radar scans along a previously discounted delta settlement 12 miles from Tanis, they discovered the foundation of Ramesses’ lost city.

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